Regional and country groupings

Africa Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Libya, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, United Republic of Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Zambia, Zimbabwe and other African countries and territories.1

Asia Pacific Australia, Bangladesh, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Chinese Taipei, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Zealand, Pakistan, the People’s Republic of China,2 the Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Viet Nam and other Asian countries and territories.3

Central and South America Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela and other Latin American countries and territories.4

Eurasia Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Republic of Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan.

Europe Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus,56 Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, the Former Yugoslav Republic of North Macedonia, France, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Kosovo,7 Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

European Union Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus,56 Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden.

Middle East Bahrain, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Iraq, Israel,8 Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the Syrian Arab Republic, the United Arab Emirates and Yemen.

North Africa – Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia.

North America Canada, Mexico and the United States.

Abbreviations and acronyms

CAGR: compound average growth rate

CME: Chicago Mercantile Exchange (United States)

CNG: compressed natural gas

CQPGX: Chongqing Petroleum and Gas Exchange (China)

EIA: Energy Information Administration (United States)

ENTSOG: European Network of Transmission System Operators for Gas

EPIAS: Enerji Piyasaları İşletme A.Ş (Turkey)

FID: final investment decision

FLNG: floating liquefied natural gas

GDP: gross domestic product

GIE: Gas Infrastructure Europe

HH: Henry Hub

ICIS: Independent Chemical Information Services

IMF: International Monetary Fund

LNG: liquefied natural gas

MENA: Middle East and North Africa

NCG: NetConnect Germany

NDRC: National Development and Reform Commission (China)

NLNG: Nigeria LNG Limited

PPAC: Petroleum Planning & Analysis Cell (India)

TANAP: Trans-Anatolian Natural Gas Pipeline

TAP: Trans-Adriatic Pipeline

TTF: Title Transfer Facility (the Netherlands)

USD: United States dollar

WTI: West Texas Intermediate

y‑o‑y: year-on-year

Units of measure

bcf: billion cubic feet

bcf/d: billion cubic feet per day

bcm: billion cubic metres

bcm/y: billion cubic metres per year

mcm: million cubic metres

tcm: trillion cubic metres

TWh: terawatt hour

Acknowledgements, contributors and credits

This publication has been prepared by the Gas, Coal and Power Markets Division (GCP) of the International Energy Agency (IEA). The analysis was led and co-ordinated by Jean-Baptiste Dubreuil, Senior Natural Gas Analyst. Antonio Erias Rodríguez, Songho Jeon, Akos Losz, Gergely Molnár, Sean O’Brien, Tomoko Uesawa and Jean-Baptiste Dubreuil are the main authors. Masamichi Wada provided essential research and statistical support. Keisuke Sadamori, Director of the IEA Energy Markets and Security (EMS) Directorate, and Peter Fraser, Head of GCP, provided expert guidance and advice.

Other IEA colleagues provided important contributions including Ali Al Saffar, Mariano Berkenwald, Alessandro Blasi, Louis Chambeau, Joel Couse, Laura Cozzi, Carlos Fernández Alvarez, Rebecca Gaghen, Tim Gould, Tae-Yoon Kim, Rebecca McKimm, Alan Searl, Siddarth Singh, Aad van Bohemen, László Varró, and Peter Zeniewski.

Timely and comprehensive data from the Energy Data Centre were fundamental to the report.

The IEA Communication and Digital Office (CDO) provided production and launch support. Particular thanks to Jad Mouawad and his team: Astrid Dumond, Tanya Dyhin, Merve Erdem, Christopher Gully, Katie Lazaro, Jethro Mullen, Rob Stone and Therese Walsh. Justin French-Brooks edited the report.

The report was made possible by assistance from Enagás, Mitsubishi Corporation, SK E&S and Tokyo Gas.

The individuals and organisations that contributed to this report are not responsible for any opinion or judgement it contains. Any error or omission is the sole responsibility of the IEA.

For questions and comments, please contact GCP (

  1. Individual data are not available and are estimated in aggregate for: Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Niger, Reunion, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Swaziland and Uganda.

  2. Including Hong Kong

  3. Individual data are not available and are estimated in aggregate for: Afghanistan, Bhutan, Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, Kiribati, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Macau (China), Maldives, New Caledonia, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, Tonga and Vanuatu.

  4. Individual data are not available and are estimated in aggregate for: Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Falkland Islands (Malvinas), French Guyana, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guyana, Martinique, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname and Turks and Caicos Islands.

  5. Note by Turkey: The information in this document with reference to “Cyprus” relates to the southern part of the Island. There is no single authority representing both Turkish and Greek Cypriot people on the Island. Turkey recognises the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC). Until a lasting and equitable solution is found within the context of United Nations, Turkey shall preserve its position concerning the “Cyprus issue”.

  6. Note by all the European Union Member States of the OECD and the European Union: The Republic of Cyprus is recognised by all members of the United Nations with the exception of Turkey. The information in this document relates to the area under the effective control of the Government of the Republic of Cyprus.

  7. The designation is without prejudice to positions on status, and is in line with the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244/99 and the Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice on Kosovo’s declaration of Independence.

  8. The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD and/or the IEA is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law.