Implement frameworks for sustainable bioenergy production and use
It is critical that the increased bioenergy production needed to get on track with the NZE Scenario does not create negative impacts on biodiversity, freshwater systems, food availability or human quality of life. Only bioenergy that reduces lifecycle GHG emissions while avoiding unacceptable social, environmental and economic impacts should receive policy support. Sustainability frameworks can help to phase out the traditional use of biomass and help scale up a variety of sustainable feedstock supplies.
The European Union, the United States (through minimum GHG thresholds in the Renewable Fuel Standard Program and the incorporation of indirect land use change into California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard) and Brazil have established frameworks to codify some aspects of liquid biofuel sustainability, but other countries must also ensure that rigorous sustainability governance is linked to bioenergy policy support.
In addition to this, monitoring, reporting and verification frameworks should be employed to address accounting issues related to the use of bioenergy in power generation, especially in relation to negative emissions accounting for BECCS.