IEA (2021), France 2021, IEA, Paris https://www.iea.org/reports/france-2021, License: CC BY 4.0
About this report
The International Energy Agency (IEA) regularly conducts in-depth peer reviews of the energy policies of its member countries. This process supports energy policy development and encourages the exchange of international best practices and experiences.
In 2019, France put its target to reach net zero emissions by 2050 into law and updated its energy transition framework the following year with a new National Low-Carbon Strategy and 10-year energy plan. However, France’s energy transition has experienced significant delays, and implementation remains challenging despite the many reforms underway. Moreover, new European Union climate goals will compel the French government to upgrade its 2030 targets and track progress more stringently.
For decades, French power generation has produced a relatively low level of carbon dioxide emissions compared with similar economies, owing to the significant share of nuclear energy. However, the country’s nuclear fleet is ageing, and overall emissions are rising because energy consumption across the economy as a whole remains dominated by fossil fuels, notably in transport. Maintaining low-carbon power generation as a base for further decarbonisation and electrification requires timely decisions on the future electricity mix and accelerated investments.
France’s economic recovery plan from the Covid-19 crisis and its 2030 investment plan will help accelerate its energy transition by driving progress in sustainable mobility, building retrofits and hydrogen.
This report includes a series of recommendations to support France’s efforts to tackle these challenges and to meet its energy and climate goals.