Sustainable Recovery

World Energy Outlook Special Report
River running through a forest



Agrawala, S., D. Dussaux and N. Monti (2020), "What policies for greening the crisis response and economic recovery? Lessons learned from past green stimulus measures and implications for the COVID-19 crisis", OECD Environment Working Papers, No. 164, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris,

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Cambridge Econometrics (2011), Assessing the Implementation and Impact of Green Elements of Member States’ National Recovery Plans, Final Report for the European Commission (DG Environment), Cambridge, United Kingdom,

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Elgin, C., G. Basbug and A. Yalaman (2020), “Economic Policy Responses to a Pandemic: Developing the COVID-19 Economic Stimulus Index”, Covid Economics: Vetted and Real Time Papers, Issue 3, pp. 40-54, Centre for Economic Policy Research Press 2020.

Gentilini, U. et al. (2020), “Social Protection and Jobs Responses to COVID-19: A Real-Time Review of Country Measures”, Living Paper, ver. 7, 1 May 2020, COVID-19 Living Paper, World Bank, Washington, DC.

IATA (International Air Transport Association) (2020), 25 Million Jobs at Risk with Airline Shutdown, 7 April 2020, Geneva.

IEA (International Energy Agency) (2020a), Global Energy Review 2020, Paris.

IEA (2020b), Energy market turmoil deepens challenges for many major oil and gas exporters, Paris,

IEA (2020c), Oil Market Report - May 2020, Paris.

IEA (2020d), World Energy Investment 2020, Paris.

IEA (2020e), As the Covid-19 crisis hammers the auto industry, electric cars remain a bright spot, Paris,

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IMF (International Monetary Fund) (2020a), IMF World Economic Outlook, April 2020: The Great Lockdown, IMF, Washington DC.

IMF (2020b), IMF World Economic Outlook Database, April 2020 Edition, IMF, Washington DC.

Mundaca, L. and J. Richter (2015), Assessing 'green energy economy' stimulus packages: Evidence from the US programs targeting renewable energy, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 42, pp. 1174-1186,

OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) (2020), OECD Economic Outlook, June 2020, OECD, Paris.

OECD (2017), Enhancing the Contributions of SMEs  in a global and digitalised economy, Meeting of the OECD Council at Ministerial Level, Paris, 7-8 June 2017,

Setti, L. et al. (2020), “Searching for SARS-COV-2 on Particulate Matter: A Possible Early Indicator of COVID-19 Epidemic Recurrence”, Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 17(9),

TomTom International (2020), TomTom Traffic Index,

Wong, C. (2011), “The Fiscal Stimulus Programme and Public Governance Issues in China”, OECD Journal on Budgeting, Vol. 11/3,

World Bank (2020), Covid-19 crisis through a migration lens, Washington DC.

ACEA (European Automobile Manufacturers Association) (2020a), Commercial vehicle registrations: -34.5% four months into 2020; -67.0% in April (press release), 26 May 2020,

ACEA (2020b), Automakers and electricity sector call for rapid action on charging points under EU recovery plan, 9 June 2020,

AIE (European Association of Electrical Contractors) (2018), Powering a New Value Chain in the Automotive Sector: Job Potential of Transport Electrification, AIE, Brussels,

Benchmark Minerals (2020), EV battery arms race enters new gear with 115 megafactories, Europe sees most rapid growth,

Bieker, G. and P. Mock (2020), Green vehicle replacement programs as a response to the COVID-19 crisis: Lessons learned from past programs and guidelines for the future, International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington DC,

BNEF (Bloomberg New Energy Finance) (2019), Battery Pack Prices Fall As Market Ramps Up With Market Average At $156/kWh In 2019,

Boursier (2020), Coronavirus : après la RATP, la SNCF rembourse aussi les abonnements en avril (Coronavirus: after RATP, SNCF also reimburses subscriptions in April),

CEIC (2020), India Cement: Production, CEIC Data,

CEMNET (2020), “China’s cement industry expected to lead economic recovery”, International Cement Review,

Cisco (2018), Cisco Visual Networking Index Complete Forecast Update, 2017–2022, Cisco, San Jose, CA.,

Citymapper (2020), Citymapper Mobility Index (database),

Ecocounter (2020), Understand the impact of the pandemic on cycling,

EEA (European Energy Agency) (2018), Electric Vehicles from Lifecycle and Circular Economy Perspectives, EEA, Copenhagen,

ESMAP (Energy Sector Management Assistance Program) (2020), Off-Grid Solar Market Trends Report 2020, World Bank, Washington DC.,

ESMAP (2019), Mini Grids for Half a Billion People, World Bank, Washington DC.,

Federal Reserve (US) 2020, Industrial Production Index,

FES (Friedrich Ebert Stiftung) (2015), The Future of the German Automotive Industry, Structural Change in the Automotive Industry: Challenges and Perspectives,

GOGLA (Global Off-Grid Lighting Association) (2020), Powering opportunity,

IEA (International Energy Agency) (2020a), Global Energy Review, Paris,

IEA (2020b), Renewable Energy Market Update, Paris,

IEA (2020c), “Clean energy progress after the Covid-19 crisis will need reliable supplies of critical minerals”, Paris,

IEA (2020d), World Energy Investment 2020, Paris,

IEA (2020e), “As the Covid-19 crisis hammers the auto industry, electric cars remain a bright spot”, Paris,

IEA (2020f), Tracking Clean Energy Progress: Truck and Buses, Paris,

IEA (2020g), “Working from home can save energy and reduce emissions. But how much”?, Paris,

IEA (2020h), Tracking Buildings: Data Centres and Data Transmission Networks, Paris,

IEA (2020i), Outlook for Biogas and Biomethane: Prospects for Organic Growth, Paris,

IEA (2020j), Methane Tracker, Paris,

IEA (2019a), Africa Energy Outlook, Paris,

IEA (2019b), Nuclear Power in a Clean Energy System, Paris,

IEA (2019c), World Energy Outlook 2019, Paris,

IEA (2019d), The Future of Rail, Paris,

IEA, IRENA, UNSD, World Bank, WHO (2020), Tracking SDG 7: The Energy Progress Report, World Bank, Washington DC,

HIS (2020a), IHS US Manufacturing PMI, IHS Markit,

HIS (2020b), Global commercial vehicle to drop 22 percent, IHS Markit,

ILO (International Labour Organization) (2020), ILOSTAT Database, Geneva,

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Institute for Supply Management (2020), PMI Composite Index,

IRENA (International Renewable Energy Agency) (2020), Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2019, Abu Dhabi.

IRENA (2019), Renewable Energy and Jobs Annual Review 2019, Abu Dhabi.

IRJ (International Rail Journal) (2020), “UITP projects €40bn hit for European public transport in 2020”,

ITU (International Telecommunication Union) (2020), ICT Statistics,

Loo, B. P. (2018), Unsustainable Transport and Transition in China, Routledge,

Malmodin, J. and D. Lundén (2018), “The energy and carbon footprint of the global ICT and E&M sectors 2010–2015”, Sustainability Vol. 10(9), pp. 3027.

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Mercom India, (2020), Over 181,000 Solar Water Pumps Installed in India, Mercom,

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Moovit (2020), Moovit (database),

NEA (Nuclear Energy Agency) and OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development) (2016), Small Modular Reactors: Nuclear Energy Market Potential for Near-term Deployment, NEA/OECD, Paris,

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Peace, B. (2020), Covid-19 Updated Impact Assessment, International Aviation Transport Association, Montreal,

Railway Technology (2018), The world’s biggest railway operators in 2018,

Raje, F. and A. Saffrey (2016), The Value of Cycling, UK Department for Transport, London,

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S&P Global Platts (2020), Olefins Outlook, New York,

Sandvine (2020), The Global Internet Phenomena Report COVID-19 Spotlight May 2020, Sandvine, Tokyo

Saunois et al. (2016), “The Global Methane Budget 2000–2012”, Earth System Science Data, VOL. 8, pp. 697–751.

Shakti Sustainable Energy Foundation (2018), Solar for Irrigation – A Comparative Assessment of Deployment Strategies, Council on Energy, Environment and Water, Dehli,

Smart Growth America (2011), Recent Lessons from the Stimulus: Transportation Funding and Job Creation, Washington DC,

Statista (2020), Manufacturing Purchasing Managers' Index (PMI) in China from April 2018 to April 2020,

Sumits, A. (2015), The History and Future of Internet Traffic, Cisco, San Jose, CA,

TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute) (2014), The Energy and Resources Institute Energy and Environment Data Directory and Yearbook, New Delhi.

Thouthang, L. and R. Kumar (2019), Can India’s 30m grid/diesel irrigation pumps go solar?,,

Townsend, A., N. Raji and A. Zapantis (2020), The Value of Carbon Capture and Storage, Global Carbon Capture and Storage Institute, Docklands,

Trading Economics (2020a), China growth,

Trading Economics (2020b), India growth,

Trading Economics (2020c), Eurozone industrial production,

UIC (International Union of Railways) (2017), “Analysis of regional differences in global rail projects by cost, length and project stage”, analysis_of_global_rail_infrastructure_investment.pdf.

UITP (Union Internationale des Transports Publics) (2011), Employment in public transport: 13 million people worldwide!, Brussels,

UK Department of Transport (2014), Value for Money Assessment for Cycling Grants, UK DfT, London

UN University (2014), “India plans to convert water pumps from diesel to solar”,

UNEP (UN Environment Programme) (2012), Green Economy Briefing Paper Poverty Reduction, Nairobi,

US Census Bureau (2020), Advance monthly sales for retail and food services, Washington DC,

US GAO (United States Government Accountability Office) (2010), Auto Industry Lessons Learned from Cash for Clunkers Program, Washington DC,

Wietschel M. et al. (2017), Perspektiven des Wirtschaftsstandorts Deutschland in Zeiten zunehmender Elektromobilität (The Effects of Vehicle Electrification on Employment in Germany), Fraunhofer ISI, Karlsruhe,

World Health Organization (2019), Household Energy Database, World Health Organization, Geneva,

World Steel Association (2020), Crude steel production, Brussels,

WSDOT (Washington State Department of Transportation) (2020), “Declining ridership due to COVID-19 brings change to Amtrak Cascades trains”,

Anderson et al. (2013), Getting to know GIMF: The Simulation Properties of the Global Integrated Monetary and Fiscal Model, International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC,

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Cronk, R. and J. Bartram (2018), Environmental conditions in health care facilities in lowand middle-income countries: coverage and inequalities, International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, Vol. 221, Issue 3, pp. 409-422.

European Commission (2020), Taxonomy: Final report of the Technical Expert Group on Sustainable Finance, EU Technical Expert Group on Sustainable Finance, Brussels,

IEA (International Energy Agency) (2020), Low fuel prices provide a historic opportunity to phase out fossil fuel consumption subsidies, Paris,

ILO (International Labour Organization) (2019), A Quantum Leap for Ggender Equality: For a Better Future of Work for All, Geneva,

IMF (International Monetary Fund) and World Bank Group (2020), Background Note for Mobilizing with Africa, High-Level Virtual Event on ‘Mobilizing with Africa’,

Laxton, D., S. Mursula, M. Kumhof, and D.V. Muir (2010), The Global Integrated Monetary and Fiscal Model (GIMF) – Theoretical Structure, International Monetry Fund, Washington, DC,

Matikainen, S., E. Campiglio and D. Zenghelis (2017), The climate impact of quantitative easing, London School of Economics, London, DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.24108.05763.