IEA (2023), National Reliance on Russian Fossil Fuel Imports, IEA, Paris https://www.iea.org/reports/national-reliance-on-russian-fossil-fuel-imports, License: CC BY 4.0
Which countries are most reliant on Russian energy
These indicators show the ratio of Russian imports to domestic fuel consumption of each fuel, and as a share of total energy supply for all fossil fuels. Please note that the individual indicators cannot be aggregated as they are computed on different basis (total energy supply for each fuel).
Coal includes primary coal, coal products, peat and peat products. Oil shale and shale oils are excluded.
Total oil comprises crude oil and oil products.
The results of this calculation can lead to ratios higher than 100%, which mean that a country imports more energy than it consumed in a certain year. This can happen in the following situations:
- Some of the quantities imported are stocked and not consumed. Similarly, some can go to aviation or marine bunkers.
- Some quantities imported are re-exported, meaning that some transit trade is captured in the figures.
- In the specific case of oil, crude oil and oil products are computed together. Some countries import crude oil, refine it, and export oil products, which can lead, when computed all together, to figures of imports higher than TES, as a significant part is exported.
- Estonia shows negative values for 2019 and 2020 as a result of the statistical processing of oil shale liquefaction processes. The input of this process, oil shale, is included under coal, and the output, shale oil, under crude oil. Due to the structure and definition of the energy balances, crude oil TES is negative as it absorbs the exports (negative by definition) but not the production (under transformation, not production). This methodology is only applied for these two years, but will be extended to all the time series in the upcoming IEA statistics publication.
Please refer to the IEA data services Documentation for comprehensive information on definitions and detailed country notes: