IEA (2019), "World Energy Balances 2019", IEA, Paris https://www.iea.org/reports/world-energy-balances-2019
World Energy Balances provides comprehensive energy balances for all the world’s largest energy producing and consuming countries. It contains detailed data on the supply and consumption of energy for over 160 countries and regions, including all OECD countries, and more than 100 other key energy producing and consuming countries, as well as world totals and various regional aggregates. The book includes graphs and detailed data by country for all energy sources – coal, gas, oil, electricity, renewables and waste – expressed in balance format. Alongside this, there are summary time series on production, trade, final consumption by sector, as well as key energy and economic indicators and an overview of trends in global energy production and use. More detailed data in original units are published in the companion publication World Energy Statistics. The World Energy Balances USB key / online data service also contains energy balances and key energy and economic indicators for over 160 countries and regions. The balances are expressed in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent and in terajoules. In general, the data are available for 1971 (1960 for OECD countries) to 2017, with preliminary 2018 estimates of all supply flows (OECD) and of production and trade of natural gas, primary coal and oil (non-OECD). Conversion factors used to calculate energy balances and definitions of products and flows and explanatory notes on the individual country data are also included. More detailed data in original units are published in the companion CD-ROM/USB key World Energy Statistics.
World energy production was 14 035 Mtoe in 2017 – a 2.2% increase compared to 2016. This increase was driven by coal and natural gas, both increasing by more than 120 Mtoe in 2017, and renewables other than hydro and biofuels, which grew by slightly more than 30 Mtoe.
Oil production was stable, and fossil fuels together accounted for 81.3% of production in 2017.
While energy production of all fuels is very concentrated, with over half of production concentrated in fewer than five countries (and in some cases only two countries), there is significant variation.
China produced almost half of world coal in 2017, and almost a third of hydro while the United States and France combined produced almost 50% of all nuclear. Saudi Arabia, Russia and the United States contributed slightly less than 40% of the world crude oil while Russia and the US also accounted for 40% of world natural gas.
The only notable change in energy production in 2017 compared to 2016 is that Canada replaced Qatar as the 4th largest producer of natural gas.
Between 1971 and 2017, world total primary energy supply (TPES) increased by more than 2.5 times with major changes to the shares of oil and gas. While still the dominant fuel in 2017, oil fell from 44% to 32% of TPES. As for natural gas, it grew from 16% to 22%.
The share of coal is one percentage point higher in 2017 compared to 1971, however, it has fluctuated significantly during that period, increasing constantly between 1999 and 2011, influenced mainly by increased consumption in China. Meanwhile nuclear grew from 0.5% to 4.9%.
Energy demand has evolved differently by region. The OECD’s share of global TPES fell from 61.1% in 1971 to 38.0% in 2017 and is now almost on par with non-OECD Asia where energy demand grew sevenfold.
Though non-OECD Europe and Eurasia's share of global energy demand nearly halved between 1971 and 2017, it remained the third biggest energy-consuming region, followed by Africa, where energy demand over the period has multiplied by more than four.
Total final consumption has soared in non-OECD Asia (which includes China) since the early 2000s, accounting for over one third of global TFC in 2017.
Meanwhile the generally increasing trend in the OECD came to an end with the 2008 global economic crisis, with total final consumption staying steady around a plateau of 3 600 Mtoe for a number of years. It picked up again in 2014 and OECD TFC reached 3 711 Mtoe in 2017, its highest level since 2008.
Despite the increase in renewable energy and fall in coal in 2018, low-carbon energy sources did not keep pace with gas growth, resulting in a 0.5% increase in energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. After a 1% average annual drop in the 2010-2016 period, driven by improvements in energy efficiency and penetration of renewables, in 2018 emissions started to grow again in the OECD.
Yet despite the overall increase in emissions, mostly driven by the United States, Canada and Korea, several countries showed net decreases, most notably Japan, Germany and France.
Power generation was responsible for around half of the OECD growth in natural gas supply.
In 2018, gas overtook coal as the top fuel for electricity generation, with more than 3000 TWh generated.
The sectoral share of total final consumption (TFC) has remained relatively stable compared to recent years. Final energy consumption of all sectors stayed steady or rose in 2017, with industry, transport and non-energy use of fuels all contributing equally to growth.
In 2017, Africa produced 8.1% of the world’s energy, a similar share as in 1971, although African energy production almost tripled during the same period.
African energy production is dominated by oil, and biofuels and waste, followed by natural gas and coal. Africa’s share of global TPES increased from 3.4% in 1971 to 5.8% in 2017; and despite many African countries being dependent on imports of fossil fuels, as a region it is energy self-sufficient and a net exporter of coal, natural gas and crude oil.
The main energy producers in the non-OECD Americas in 2017 were Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia, Argentina, Trinidad and Tobago and Ecuador. Together these countries produced 88.8% of the 792 Mtoe of energy produced in the region.
Brazil alone was responsible for 36.9% of the region’s production in 2017 as its crude oil production, totalling nearly half of the region’s production in 2017, has been increasing for 4 years in a row. Natural gas accounted for only 7.9% of Brazil’s total energy production in 2017 but increased by 13.1% compared to 2016.
Since the early 1990s non-OECD Asia has been the second largest energy-producing region in the world behind the OECD, accounting for over 28% of global production in 2017.
China alone provided 61.7% of energy production in the region in 2017 compared to 60.9% in 2016. India and Indonesia together accounted for a quarter of the region’s production.
Energy production is very unevenly distributed across non-OECD Europe and Eurasia. Although the region as a whole is energy self-sufficient, it includes some of the most energy import-dependent countries in the world including Malta, Cyprus and Belarus.
Preliminary data for 2018 shows that Russia was the world’s second largest producer and the first net exporter of natural gas, the third largest producer of crude oil, and the sixth largest producer and third net exporter of coal. Turkmenistan remained the sixth largest net exporter of natural gas and Kazakhstan the eighth largest net exporter of coal.
Over the last four decades, total final consumption in the Middle East expanded in all sectors, particularly industry and transport, which increased twenty fold.
In 2017 oil accounted for around 95%, 25% and 15% of final consumption in transport, industry and residential, respectively. Oil is responsible for almost half of total energy consumption in the Middle East. Also in 2017, natural gas met 62.7% and 46.1% of final consumption in industry and residential, respectively. Electricity tripled its share in final energy consumption from 5.6% in 1971 to 15.4% in 2017.