Fuel economy in Turkey

This report is part of Global Fuel Economy Initiative 2021

Market profile and analysis of fuel consumption trends

Light-duty vehicle (LDV) sales have been declining in recent years in Turkey, with 4.7 million sold in 2019, down from 9.7 million in 2016. The average fuel consumption of new LDVs reached 5.5 of gasoline equivalent per 100 kilometres (Lge/100 km) in 2019, down from 8.2 Lge/100 km in 2005. This reflects a 2.8% annual average decrease in fuel consumption between 2005 and 2019. Notably, fuel consumption had been decreasing at average rate of 3.4% per year between 2005 and 2017, until a slight rise between 2017 and 2019. Still average LDV fuel consumption in Turkey is 24% below the global average, primarily due to a high share of diesel powertrains and medium cars.

Turkey has the highest share of diesel engines among major LDV markets, representing 59% of LDVs sold in 2019, down from 70% in 2017. In place of diesel, gasoline sales shares have increased in all car segments, and LPG powertrains have grown to account for 4% of LDV sales in 2019, mainly in the medium car and small SUV/pick-up segments. The market for hybrid vehicles has also grown to reach 2% of LDV sales in 2019, though sales shares of electric and plug-in LDVs remain negligible.

With a 40% sales share in 2019, medium cars claim the majority of the LDV market in Turkey. However, sales of SUVs are on the rise. In particular, the sales share of small SUV/pick-ups have expanded from 2% in 2005 to 20% in 2019. Despite growing demand for SUVs, the average weight of LDVs in Turkey has only grown 3% since 2005, and is 6% below the global average at 1 398 kg in 2019.

Overview of current fuel economy policy

Turkey has vehicle CO2 labelling and a vehicle registration tax (ÖTV) tied to vehicle engine size, or displacement. The ÖTV tax is applied to the vehicle’s net price and can range from 100% for vehicles with an engine displacement above 1.6 litres, rising to 160% for vehicles with engine displacement above 2.0 litres. Tax incentives are in place for hybrid and battery electric vehicles, such that depending on engine displacement and/or engine power, tax rates are reduced to 45-60% for hybrid and 3-15% for battery electric vehicles. In 2021, the tax applied on electric vehicles was increased to 10-60%.