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Acknowledgements, contributors and credits

This publication has been prepared by the Gas, Coal and Power Markets Division (GCP) of the International Energy Agency (IEA). Keisuke Sadamori, Director of Energy Markets and Security, provided with essential guidance and Carlos Fernández Alvarez has led and co-ordinated the analysis. Jonas Zinke and Carlos Fernández Alvarez are the authors.

Other IEA colleagues provided important contributions, including Louis Chambeau, Javier Jorquera Copier, Stefan Lorenczik, Rebecca McKimm and Gergely Molnár.

Timely and comprehensive data from the IEA Energy Data Centre were fundamental to the report. Laura Marí Martínez and Nicola Draghi provided invaluable support during the process.

This report is possible due to the support of the IEA Communication and Digital Office (CDO). Particular thanks go to Gregory Viscusi, who edited the report, Astrid Dumond and Jethro Mullen.

Our gratitude goes to the Institute of Energy Economics at the University of Cologne (EWI) for sharing its breadth of coal expertise and modelling.

For questions and comments, please contact
Carlos Fernández Alvarez (

Abbreviations and acronyms

API Argus/McCloskey’s Coal Price Index

ARA Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and Antwerp

CFR cost and freight

CIF cost, insurance and freight

CV calorific value

EIA Energy Information Administration (United States)

EU European Union

FOB free on board

GDP gross domestic product

IEA International Energy Agency

met metallurgical

OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

TTF Title Transfer Facility (Netherlands)

US United States

USD United States dollar

y-o-y year-on-year

Units of measure

bt billion tonnes

GW gigawatt

kcal kilocalorie

kg kilogramme

km kilometre

kt kilotonnes

MBtu million British thermal units

Mt million tonnes

Mtpa million tonnes per annum

MW megawatt

t tonne

TWh terawatt hours