This report was prepared by the IEA’s Directorate of Sustainability, Technology and Outlooks (STO). Simon Bennett (Energy Supply and Investment Outlook division) was the lead author, alongside Amalia Pizarro (Energy Technology Policy division). We are grateful to Nikita Patil, who carried out analytical research and provided significant contributions and to Jean-Baptiste Le Marois (Energy Technology Policy division) for his analytical support.

The report would not have been possible without the support from Tim Gould, Chief Energy Economist, and Timur Gül, Head of Division for Energy Technology Policy. The report is indebted to the high calibre of inputs, comments and feedback from colleagues within the IEA, including Nick Johnstone (Chief Statistician), Blandine Barreau, Lizé Clémence, Araceli Fernández Pales, Paolo Frankl, Vanessa Koh, Christophe McGlade, Luiz Gustavo Silva de Oliveira, Leonardo Paoli, Rebecca Schulz, Siddharth Singh, Michael Waldron and Per Anders Widell.

Many international experts provided input and reviewed preliminary drafts of the report. The information they provided as well as their comments and suggestions were of great value. They include (in alphabetical order):

Manisha Acharya

Indigram Labs

Magnus Agerström

Cleantech Scandinavia

Dag Agnvall

Swedish Energy Agency

Evelyn Allen


Markus Berglund


Pim de Bokx

Dutch Incubators & Accelerators

Elena Bou

EIT Innoenergy

Debbie Brodt-Giles

National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

Lindsay Brown

Natural Resources Canada

Chiu-Hao Ted Chen


Trish Cozart

National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

Sarah Diouri


Pia Dorfinger

German Energy Agency

Anita Fossdal


Rodrigo Frías

Start-Up Chile

Anne Haas

Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

Amanda Hall

Summit Nanotech

Tyler Hamilton

MaRS Discovery District

Cynthia Handler

Natural Resources Canada

Asvini Keerawella

MaRS Discovery District

Alexandra Khripko

German Energy Agency

Marianne Tonning Kinnari

Innovation Norway

Avishek Kumar

V-Flow Tech

Mahesh Kumar

Nanyang Technological University

Andreas Lehner


Constanza Levicán


Jordi López

EIT Innoenergy

Tricia Martinez

US Department of Energy

Claus Meineche

Danish Energy Agency

Canelle Mengual

German Energy Agency

Andrea Mohr


Neil Nevgi


Bill Nussey

Solar Inventions

Smita Rakesh

Social Alpha

Alicia Requena

Cleantech Scandinavia

Hariram Someswaran

Nanyang Technological University

Erik Steeb

Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

Andrew Stokes

Energy Systems Catapult

Andreas Stubelius

Swedish Energy Agency

Amanda Wilson

Natural Resources Canada

Ting Yan


Thanks also to the IEA Communications and Digital Office for their help in producing the report, particularly to Astrid Dumond, Jon Custer, Jethro Mullen, Isabelle Nonain-Semelin, Taline Shahinian, Therese Walsh and Wonjik Yang. Kristine Douaud edited the manuscript.

Comments and questions are welcome and should be addressed to:

Simon Bennett ( and Amalia Pizarro (

The individuals and organisations that contributed to this study are not responsible for any opinions or judgements it contains. This publication reflects the views of the IEA Secretariat but does not necessarily reflect those of individual IEA member countries. The IEA makes no representation or warranty, express or implied, in respect of the publication’s contents (including its completeness or accuracy) and shall not be responsible for any use of, or reliance on, the publication. Unless otherwise indicated, all material presented in figures and tables is derived from IEA data an analysis.

This publication and any map included herein are without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area.

The preparation of this report was made possible through the Clean Energy Transitions in Emerging Economies programme, which received funding from the European Commission’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement no. 952363.

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