How many countries are members of the IEA?
Which countries are members of the IEA, and when did each join?
Australia (joined: 1979), Austria (founding member: 1974), Belgium (founding member: 1974), Canada (founding member: 1974), Czech Republic (joined: 2001), Denmark (founding member: 1974), Estonia (joined: 2014), Finland (joined: 1992), France (joined: 1992), Germany (founding member: 1974), Greece (joined: 1976), Hungary (joined: 1997), Ireland (founding member: 1974), Italy (founding member: 1974), Japan (founding member: 1974), Republic of Korea (joined: 2002), Luxembourg (founding member: 1974), Mexico (joined: 2018), The Netherlands (founding member: 1974), New Zealand (joined: 1977), Norway (participates in the Agency under a special Agreement since 1974), Poland (joined: 2008), Portugal (joined: 1981), Slovak Republic (joined: 2007), Spain (founding member: 1974), Sweden (founding member: 1974), Switzerland (founding member: 1974), Turkey (founding member: 1974), United Kingdom (founding member: 1974), and the United States (founding member: 1974).
How do countries become member countries of the IEA?
Before becoming a member country of the IEA, a candidate country must be a member country of the OECD and demonstrate that it has:
- crude oil and/or product reserves equivalent to 90 days of the previous year’s net imports, to which the government has immediate access (even if it does not own them directly) and could be used to address disruptions to global oil supply;
- a demand restraint programme to reduce national oil consumption by up to 10%;
- legislation and organisation to operate the Co-ordinated Emergency Response Measures (CERM) on a national basis;
- legislation and measures to ensure that all oil companies under its jurisdiction report information upon request;
- measures in place to ensure the capability of contributing its share of an IEA collective action. An IEA collective action would be initiated in response to a significant global oil supply disruption and would involve IEA Member Countries making additional volumes of crude and/or product available to the global market (either through increasing supply or reducing demand), with each country’s share based on national consumption as part of the IEA total oil consumption.
The Executive Director of the IEA has to make a finding to ascertain whether the potential member country can meet these requirements, during which the IEA Secretariat advises and works with the candidate country. The IEA Governing Board makes the final decision on the country membership.
Why are some members of the OECD not IEA member countries?
To be a member country of the IEA, a country must be a member country of the OECD. However, membership in the OECD does not automatically result in membership in the IEA. As of 2018, Chile, Iceland, Israel and Slovenia were members of the OECD but not of the IEA. In order to become a member country of the IEA, countries must meet certain requirements (see preceding FAQ. Chile is currently a candidate country for IEA membership and seven countries – Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Morocco, Singapore, and Thailand are Association countries.
Does the IEA work with countries that are not members of the Agency?
Yes. From its inception, the IEA has embraced a global perspective to keep up with the highly integrated energy world. To address the shrinking share of IEA member countries in global energy consumption, which has fallen down to 40% in 2015, the IEA has stepped up its efforts to develop close co-operative working relationships outside the IEA.
Since the adoption of the IEA’s “opening the doors” policy, initiated in 2015 to engage more deeply with emerging economies and key energy players in Asia, Latin America and Africa, seven countries – Brazil, China, India, Indonesia , Morocco, Singapore and Thailand have become IEA Association countries, and Mexico joined the IEA as the 30th member country. With these new additions, the extended IEA family accounts for some 70% of the world’s energy use – higher than when the IEA was created in 1974 and almost double the share in 2015. Based on our projections in the World Energy Outlook, the share of this extended family remains well above 60% through to the end of the projection period in 2040.
Shared areas of co-operation under Association include energy security, energy data and statistics, and energy policy analysis. Association is a key step towards building a truly global international energy organisation, fully reflective of future energy trends and the interests of both IEA members and Association countries.
In addition to including a lengthening list of non-member countries in the IEA energy sector surveys, the Agency hosts periodic multilateral technical-level meetings with experts from energy producing and consuming countries to promote understanding and co-operation; organises seminar/workshops on specific topics, such as emergency response policies, and energy efficiency and regulatory issues with non-member countries; and has developed and expanded a formal training and capacity building programme.
How often does the IEA conduct policy analysis of member countries?
Approximately every five years, the IEA conducts an in-depth review of the policies of individual member countries. All of these reviews are published, along with a synthesis report highlighting important cross-cutting policy issues; the reviews can be found via each member country's webpage on the IEA website. In-depth energy policy reviews of non-member countries are also conducted from time to time. The IEA undertakes policy analysis and co-operates in the development of policies in the areas of energy efficiency, energy diversification (electricity, natural gas, coal, renewable energy sources) and the integration of environmental concerns into energy policies.