IEA (2023), Global Energy and Climate Model, IEA, Paris https://www.iea.org/reports/global-energy-and-climate-model, License: CC BY 4.0
In order to underpin scenario analysis of the GEC Model, an extensive effort is made to update and expand the list of energy and climate-related policies and measures that feed into our modelling. Assumptions about government policies are critical to this analysis and are the main reason for the differences in outcomes across the scenarios.
In total, new policies and measures globally have been considered during the model preparation, including recent announcements such as the Inflation Reduction Act (United States), Fit for 55 (European Union), Climate Change Bill (Australia), and GX Green Transformation (Japan). A summary of some of the key policy targets and measures for different sectors by selected countries and regions can be found in the Annex B of World Energy Outlook 2023.
Although all care has been taken to ensure accuracy, completeness and clarity of content in these databases, this does not represent a complete listing of all energy related policies in the region or country covered. For various reasons information can be difficult to find or confirm, and some information is subject to the translator's discretion. If you have more up-to-date information, please help us improve the quality of this service by contacting the IEA at email@example.com.
The considered policies are additive across scenarios: measures listed under the Announced Pledges Scenario (APS) supplement those in the Stated Policies Scenario (STEPS). Additional policy assumptions are incorporated in the Net Zero Emissions by 2050 Scenario (NZE) which provide indicative policymaking and decarbonising milestones that would steer global energy systems to these outcomes.
The published tables begin with broad cross-cutting policy frameworks, followed by more detailed policies by sector: power, industry buildings, and transport. The tables only list policies that are enacted, implemented or revised since the last publication cycle. Some regional policies have been included if they play a significant role in shaping energy at a global scale (e.g. regional carbon markets, standards in very large provinces or states). The tables do not include all policies and measures, rather they highlight the policies most shaping global energy demand today, while being derived from an exhaustive examination of announcements and plans in countries around the world.
The International Energy Agency is at the forefront of global efforts to assess and analyse persistent energy access deficit, providing annual country-by-country data on access to electricity and clean cooking (SDG 7.1) and the main data source for tracking official progress towards SDG targets on renewables (SDG 7.2) and energy efficiency (SDG 7.3). The IEA is one of the appointed co-custodians for tracking global progress on SDG 7 alongside IRENA, UNSD, the World Bank, and WHO. More details can be found in the SDG 7 database and the energy access methodology.
The IEA’s Policies and Measures Database provides access to information on past, existing or planned government policies and measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, improve energy efficiency and support the development and deployment of renewables and other clean energy technologies. This unique policy database brings together data from the IEA/IRENA Renewable Energy Policies and Measures Database, the IEA Energy Efficiency Database, the Addressing Climate Change database, the Building Energy Efficiency Policies (BEEP) database and the IEA’s Government Energy Spending Tracker, along with information on CCUS, methane abatement, hydrogen and critical minerals policies. This policy information has been collected since 1999 from governments, partner organisations and IEA analysis. Governments have an opportunity to review the policy information periodically.