IEA (2014), Technology Roadmap - Solar Photovoltaic Energy 2014, IEA, Paris https://www.iea.org/reports/technology-roadmap-solar-photovoltaic-energy-2014, License: CC BY 4.0
Solar energy is widely available throughout the world and can contribute to reduced dependence on energy imports. As it entails no fuel price risk or constraints, it also improves security of supply. Solar power enhances energy diversity and hedges against price volatility of fossil fuels, thus stabilising costs of electricity generation in the long term. Solar PV entails no greenhouse gas emissions during operation and does not emit other pollutants (such as oxides of sulphur and nitrogen); additionally, it consumes no or little water. As local air pollution and extensive use of fresh water for cooling of thermal power plants are becoming serious concerns in hot or dry regions, these benefits of solar PV become increasingly important.