IEA (2018), System Integration of Renewables, IEA, Paris https://www.iea.org/reports/system-integration-of-renewables
Wind and solar PV capacity has grown very rapidly in many countries, thanks to supportive policy and dramatic falls in technology cost. By the end of 2016, these technologies – collectively referred to as variable renewable energy (VRE) – had reached double-digit shares of annual electricity generation in fifteen countries. In 2016, VRE share in electricity generation reached nearly 45% in Denmark and about 20% in Ireland and Spain. By 2022, in large power systems like those of China, India and USA, the share of VRE is expected to double to more than 10%. This report combines selected chapters from three existing IEA publication, namely Next Generation Wind and Solar Power, Getting Wind and Sun onto the Grid and Status of Power System Transformation 2017. These are combined to form a comprehensive overview of system integration strategies, while aiming to provide one single and concise publication.