IEA (2013), Southeast Asia Energy Outlook 2013, IEA, Paris https://www.iea.org/reports/southeast-asia-energy-outlook-2013
The ten members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) – along with the People's Republic of China and India – are shifting the centre of gravity of the global energy system towards Asia. Energy demand in Southeast Asia has expanded by two-and-a-half times since 1990, its rate of growth among the fastest in the world. Economic and demographic trends point to further growth, lifting the region’s energy use per capita from just half of the global average today. But how will Southeast Asia’s fuel mix evolve? And what will the region’s supply and demand balance mean for oil, gas and coal trade? The International Energy Agency, in co-operation with the Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia, has studied these issues in consultation with ASEAN member governments and leading commentators, industry representatives and international experts. This special report, in the World Energy Outlook series, presents the findings.