IEA (2019), Renewables Information 2019, IEA, Paris https://www.iea.org/reports/renewables-information-2019
Renewables Information provides a comprehensive review of historical and current market trends in OECD countries. It provides an overview of the development of renewables and waste in the world since 1990. A greater focus is given to the OECD countries with a review of electricity generation and capacity from renewable and waste energy sources, including detailed tables. However, an overview of developments in the world and OECD renewable and waste market is also presented. The publication encompasses energy indicators, generating capacity, electricity and heat production from renewable and waste sources, as well as production and consumption of renewables and waste. Renewables Information is one of a series of annual IEA statistical publications on major energy sources; other reports are Coal Information, Electricity Information, Natural Gas Information and Oil Information.
In 2017, world total primary energy supply (TPES) was 13 972 Mtoe, of which 13.5% was produced from renewable energy sources, which includes hydro, biofuels and waste, solar, wind, geothermal and tidal.
Due to its widespread use in developing countries for heating and cooking, solid biofuels/charcoal is by far the largest renewable energy source, and the second largest source is hydro. Liquid biofuels, wind, geothermal, solar, biogases, renewable municipal waste and tidal make up the rest of the renewables energy supply.
Since 1990, renewable energy sources have grown at an average annual rate of 2.0%, which is slightly higher than the growth rate of world TPES, 1.7%.
Growth has been especially high for solar PV and wind power, which grew at average annual rates of 37.0% and 23.4% respectively. Biogases had the third highest growth rate at 11.9%, followed by solar thermal (11.2%) and liquid biofuels (9.7%).
In 2018, the share of renewables in total OECD primary energy supply reached a new high of 10.5%.
Each OECD region also showed increases in the share of renewables in 2018 reaching 15.2% in OECD Europe, 9.1% in OECD Americas and 5.5% in OECD Asia/Oceania.
Renewables showed a larger increase in average annual growth from 2000 to 2018 at 3.2% than from 1990 to 2000 at 1.7%. Higher growth rates were seen in modern renewables, such as solar PV, wind, liquid biofuels, biogases and solar thermal.
In comparison, solid biofuels and hydro influenced much of renewables growth between 1990 and 2000. Despite this, the contribution of modern renewables to the total energy supply is still minor. The combined share of liquid biofuels, wind, solar, biogases, renewable municipal waste, and tidal still represents only 3.7% of total primary energy supply. Nevertheless, the share of modern renewables in OECD countries out of all renewables increased dramatically from 3.1% in 1990 to 35.7% in 2018.
Renewables are the second largest contributor to global electricity production. They accounted for 24.5% of world generation in 2017, after coal and ahead of gas, nuclear and oil.
Historically, the relative positions of renewables and natural gas have been influenced by various factors, including weather conditions. Policies which favour renewables over fossil fuels have also contributed to the increasing importance of renewables in world electricity production.
In the OECD, hydro power production makes up the largest share of renewable sources in power production – but it had the lowest average growth rate of any renewable electricity source from 1990 to 2018. Wind grew from 0.3% in 1990 to 26.0% of renewable electricity in 2018, a 20.7% average annual growth rate, making it the second largest renewable source for electricity.
The share of solar PV in OECD renewable electricity production had a 33.9% average annual growth rate in the same time period.
From 1990 to 2017, the renewable shares of generating capacities for OECD countries have increased and the average annual growth rates of renewables and waste generating capacities (3.7%) have outpaced the average annual growth rates of non-renewable generating capacities (1.4%).
On a global level, the majority of renewables are consumed in the residential, commercial and public services sectors. This is a consequence of the widespread use of solid biofuels in the residential sector in developing countries.
The transformation sector (electricity and heat) accounts for 38.6% of renewables consumption worldwide, while 41.7% are used in the residential, commercial and public sectors.
In the OECD, the majority of the consumption of renewables has been in the transformation sector for the last three decades. In the other sectors, there has been a diversification of renewables demand, with the most significant trend being the steep growth of biofuels used for transport. In 2017, liquid biofuels and biogases used for transport constituted 10.5% of renewables consumption.