IEA (2018), "Global Gas Security Review 2018", IEA, Paris https://www.iea.org/reports/global-gas-security-review-2018
Today’s natural gas markets are being reshaped by major emerging liquefied natural gas (LNG) buyers, led by the People’s Republic of China and the rising production and exports from the United States. This transformation, driven by growing markets and supplied by fast-changing LNG trade, brings its share of security-related challenges as was highlighted by China’s supply shortfall over the last winter. Supply flexibility remains a key prerequisite to ensuring continued global gas trade development and security. Yet priorities in terms of flexibility differ between long-term traditional buyers, who seek the removal of destination clauses, and new emerging buyers more focused on procuring short-term supply, usually for prompt delivery. The International Energy Agency’s third edition of the Global Gas Security Review provides an in-depth analysis of recent security-related issues and lessons learned. The report shows the most recent trends in LNG flexibility, based on a detailed assessment of contractual data. It examines the impact of the growing role of emerging LNG buyers and of the development of market liquidity on trade and new contracts. And, this year, it includes a special focus on short-term LNG deliverability as well as shipping fleet availability, two important factors in assessing gas security of supply around the world.