IEA (2019), Electricity Information 2019, IEA, Paris https://www.iea.org/reports/electricity-information-2019
Electricity Information provides a comprehensive review of historical and current market trends in the OECD electricity sector. It provides an overview of the world electricity developments covering world electricity and heat production, input fuel mix, supply and consumption, and electricity imports and exports. More detail is provided for the OECD countries with information covering production, installed capacity, input energy mix to electricity and heat production, consumption, electricity trades, input fuel prices and end-user electricity prices. It provides comprehensive statistical details on overall energy consumption, economic indicators, electricity and heat production by energy form and plant type, electricity imports and exports, sectoral energy and electricity consumption, as well as prices for electricity and electricity input fuels for each country and regional aggregate. Electricity Information is one of a series of annual IEA statistical publications on major energy sources; other reports are Coal Information, Natural Gas Information, Oil Information and Renewables Information.
In 2017, world gross electricity production was 2.5% higher than 2016. Year-on-year, global electricity production has grown continuously since 1974, except for between 2008 and 2009, when the global financial crisis caused an appreciable decline in production.
In 2017, the share of production of non-OECD countries reached 57.0% of world electricity generation – more than double the share they held in 1974. Annual production growth between 2000 and 2010 averaged 1.1% in OECD countries, compared with 6.4% in non-OECD countries.
In 2017, generation from combustible fuels accounted for 66.8% of total world gross electricity production.
Combustible fuels include coal and coal products, oil and oil products, natural gas, biofuels including solid biomass and animal products, gas/liquids from biomass, industrial waste and municipal waste.
Electricity generation from total combustible fuels accounted for 58.6% of total OECD gross electricity production (compared to 72.3% for non-OECD).
Electricity generation from renewable sources such as wind (+7.0%) and solar (+19.8%) registered robust growth.
In 2017, world total final electricity consumption reached 21 372 TWh, 2.6% higher than 2016. In 2017, OECD total final electricity consumption was 9 518 TWh, 0.2% higher than in 2016, while final electricity consumption in non-OECD countries was 11 854 TWh, an increase of 4.6% from 2016.
Much of the growth in OECD electricity consumption since 1974 has taken place in the residential, and commercial and public service sectors. In 2017, industry was still the largest end-use sector for electricity consumption, but its share of consumption has been in long-term decline.
The remaining consumption sectors – transport, agriculture and fishing – are relatively small consumers of electricity. However, road transport has recently experienced strong growth in electricity consumption as electric vehicles gain market share across OECD countries, in particular in Europe.
The four largest non-OECD consumers of electricity in 2017 were China, India, Russia and Brazil, which together represent 37.2% of global consumption. Among these countries, China has the largest share, at 46.7% of total non-OECD consumption.
Electricity use outside the OECD is dominated by industrial demand which accounts for half of consumption.
Electricity trade between neighbouring countries has become much more common in recent years. In the OECD, imports of electricity grew from 89 TWh in 1974 to 490 TWh in 2018, representing an average annual growth rate of 4.0%, compared to the 2.1% growth in overall electricity supply.
Substantial trade in electricity occurs in OECD Europe, where electricity imports grew at an average annual rate of 4.1% between 1974 and 2018.