IEA (2004), Coming in from the Cold, IEA, Paris https://www.iea.org/reports/coming-in-from-the-cold
Coming In from the Cold provides a road map of options to help transition economy policy makers sort through key district heating issues. It finds that district heating systems in formerly socialist countries could save the equivalent of 80 billion cubic meters of natural gas a year through supply-side efficiency improvements. This is greater than total annual natural gas consumption in Italy! It provides detailed suggestions regarding reforms in regulation, competition, investment policy, and ownership and management structures that could save significant amounts of energy, and thereby boost energy security and help the environment.