WEO Special Reports
The WEO has evolved to include the regular appearance of separate special reports alongside the main Outlook. The first of these, in 2011, asked the question “Are we entering a Golden Age of Gas?”. The WEO-2017 series includes two special reports: a regional outlook for Southeast Asia and in-depth analysis of the prospects for universal access to modern energy by 2030.
Southeast Asia Energy Outlook 2017
Published: 24 October 2017
Energy Access Outlook 2017: From Poverty to Prosperity
Published: 19 October 2017
Energy is essential for humanity to develop and thrive. In 2015, the new Sustainable Development Goals, adopted by 193 countries, included for the first time a target to ensure affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all, underscoring a new level of political agreement on the importance of access to modern energy services. At the same time, the declining cost of decentralised renewables, increased access to affordable energy-efficientt appliances and the use of mobile platforms are changing the way we think about providing energy access. It is against this backdrop that the IEA produced this Special Report, part of its flagship World Energy Outlook (WEO) series.
World Energy Outlook 2016: Special focus on Renewable Energy
Renewable energy is at the heart of the effort to transform the energy system to make it less carbon intensive, sustainable and compatible with the internationally adopted climate goals. The following three chapters focus on renewable energy, addressing many of the key questions. How fast is it expanding? Does it need to grow even faster? Are renewables competitive today? If not, when? What roles will policy-makers need to play? Can variable renewables be successfully integrated into the electricity system at the scale required?
World Energy Outlook 2016: Energy and Air Pollution
• Around 6.5 million premature deaths each year can be attributed to air pollution
• Energy production and use are by far the largest man-made sources of air pollutants
• Technologies to tackle air pollution are well known
Clean air is vital for good health. Yet despite growing recognition of this imperative, the problem of air pollution is far from solved in many countries, and the global health impacts risk intensifying in the decades to come.
The scale of the public health crisis caused by air pollution and the importance of the energy sector to its resolution are the reasons why the IEA is focusing on this critical topic for the first time.
Based on new data for pollutant emissions in 2015 and projections to 2040, this special report, the latest in the World Energy Outlook series, provides a global outlook for energy and air pollution as well as detailed profiles of key countries and regions: the United States, Mexico, the European Union, China, India, Southeast Asia and Africa.
In a Clean Air Scenario, the report proposes a pragmatic and attainable strategy to reconcile the world’s energy requirements with its need for cleaner air. Alongside the multiple benefits to human health, this strategy shows that resolving the world’s air pollution problem can go hand-in-hand with progress towards other environmental and development goals.
World Energy Outlook 2016: Water-Energy Nexus Excerpt
This excerpt from the World Energy Outlook 2016 looks at the critical interplay between water and energy, with an emphasis on the stress points that arise as the linkages between these two sectors intensify. The analysis assesses the current and future freshwater requirements for energy production, highlighting potential vulnerabilities and key stress points.
In addition, for the first time, the World Energy Outlook looks at the energy-for-water relationship, providing a first systematic global estimate of the energy requirements for different processes in the water sector, including water supply, wastewater treatment and desalination.
Mexico Energy Outlook 2016
Mexico is recasting its entire energy system, in line with a far-reaching Energy Reform package adopted by the government in 2013. How might the multiple changes being implemented today change the energy scene of tomorrow?
This analysis provides a comprehensive assessment of Mexico’s energy demand and supply outlook to 2040. The report:
• Maps out the implications of the Reforma Energética across the energy economy
• Explores the ambition of a reformed power market to meet rising demand, while tapping Mexico’s abundant renewable resources and reducing the costs of power supply
• Assesses how and when the new upstream bid rounds can turn around today’s declines in oil and gas output
• Identifies the challenges that remain, while also quantifying the value of Mexico’s energy transformation in a "No Reform Case"
Southeast Asia Energy Outlook 2015
The ten countries that make up the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) are exerting an increasingly important influence on global energy trends. Underpinned by rapid economic and demographic growth, energy demand in the region has more than doubled in the last 25 years, a trend that is set to continue over the period to 2040. Given Southeast Asia’s role as a global growth engine, understanding what is shaping energy markets in this vibrant region and the implications for energy security and the environment is vital for policy makers and anyone with a stake in the energy sector.
The International Energy Agency, in collaboration with the Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA) prepared the Southeast Asia Energy Outlook 2015 in response to a request from ministers at the 7th East Asia Summit Energy in Bali, Indonesia in 2013. Drawing on the latest data and policy and market developments, this report examines the current status and future prospects for energy markets in the region and their implications for energy security, the environment and economic development.
The report highlights:
• Trends in domestic energy demand and supply prospects to 2040, broken down by fuel and sector
• The outlook for the power sector and the increasing share of coal in the region’s electricity generation
• The role that Southeast Asia will play in international energy trade and the implications for its energy expenditures
• The potential energy and environmental benefits of implementing pragmatic measures that would help limit the rise in the region’s greenhouse-gas emissions
• An in-depth analysis of energy prospects in Malaysia to 2040
• A focus on four key issues that will shape the direction of the region’s energy system: power grid interconnection, energy investment, energy access and fossil-fuel subsidies
World Energy Outlook 2015: Energy and Climate Change
The world is moving towards a crucial climate change meeting in Paris in December 2015 (COP21). The negotiations there will be based on national pledges, formally known as Intended Nationally Determined Contributions, with the goal of setting the world on a sustainable path..
The International Energy Agency has long emphasised to its members and the world at large that energy production and use which is not compatible with international environmental requirements is not sustainable: it fails the test of energy security. The IEA, therefore, feels an obligation to make a contribution to COP21 – a contribution which reconciles climate and energy needs. That is the purpose of this special report in the World Energy Outlook series.
• Presents a detailed first assessment of the energy sector impact of known and signalled national climate pledges for COP21
• Proposes a bridging strategy to deliver a near-term peak in global energy-related greenhouse-gas emissions, based on five pragmatic measures that can advance climate goals through the energy sector without blunting economic growth
• Highlights the urgent need to accelerate the development of emerging technologies that are, ultimately, essential to transforming the global energy system into one that is consistent with the world’s climate goals
• Recommends four key pillars on which COP21 can build success, from an energy sector perspective
India Energy Outlook 2015
India is set for a period of rapid, sustained growth in energy demand: how could this re-shape the global energy scene?
This comprehensive analysis assesses the multiple challenges and opportunities facing India as it develops the resources and infrastructure to meet its energy needs. The report:
• Explores how major new policy initiatives, from “24x7 Power for All” to the “Make in India” campaign, affect India’s energy outlook
• Identifies the investment required in India’s generation and grid in order to provide universal, secure and affordable electricity supply
• Highlights the growing role of renewables, led by wind and solar, in India’s energy future, alongside the continued importance of coal
• Evaluates the energy security and environmental strains that accompany India’s rise and how they can be addressed
• Assesses the implications for a global energy system in which India exerts ever-larger influence
World Energy Investment Outlook 2014
Questions about the reliability, affordability and sustainability of our energy future often boil down to questions about investment. But are investors ready to commit capital in a fast-changing energy world? This special report in the World Energy Outlook series takes up this question in a full and comprehensive update of the energy investment picture to 2035 – a first full update since the 2003 World Energy Investment Outlook.
With benchmark data on past investment trends and updated projections for investment at regional and global level, the report provides insights into:
• The structure of ownership and models for financing investment in different parts of the energy sector
• The continued importance of oil investment in the Middle East to meet demand, and the consequences of delay in such investment
• The dynamics and costs of LNG investment and how this can shape the future of global gas supply
• Where investment in the power sector might fall short of what is required, with important findings on the reliability of electricity supply in Europe and in India
• The outlook for investment in low-carbon technologies, including renewables, and energy efficiency and the barriers to their realisation
• How global investment and financing requirements change if governments take stronger action to address climate change
Africa Energy Outlook 2014
Published: 12 November 2017
Sub-Saharan Africa' s energy sector can be improved to unlock a better life for its citizens. This report describes one of the most poorly understood parts of the global energy system, offers an authoritative study of its future prospects - broken down by fuel, sector and sub-region - and shows how investment in the sub-Saharan energy sector can stimulate rapid economic and social development across the region.
• Explores how quickly modern energy might be brought to the huge population currently deprived of it
• Highlights key actions in the energy sector that can unleash more rapid economic and social development in sub-Saharan Africa
• Evaluates the role of renewables in the region's energy future, and how important mini- and off-grid solutions can be in providing access to electricity
• Examines how existing and emerging oil and gas producers can maximise the value of their resources for economic development
• Identifies the benefits that greater regional integration of the energy sector can bring, as well as mapping the future role of sub-Saharan Africa in the global energy system
World Energy Outlook 2013: Redrawing the Energy-Climate Map
Governments have decided collectively that the world needs to limit the average global temperature increase to no more than 2 °C and international negotiations are engaged to that end. Yet any resulting agreement will not emerge before 2015 and new legal obligations will not begin before 2020. Meanwhile, despite many countries taking new actions, the world is drifting further and further from the track it needs to follow.
The energy sector is the single largest source of climate-changing greenhouse-gas emissions and limiting these is an essential focus of action. The World Energy Outlook has published detailed analysis of the energy contribution to climate change for many years. But, amid major international economic preoccupations, there are worrying signs that the issue of climate change has slipped down the policy agenda. This Special Report seeks to bring it right back on top by showing that the dilemma can be tackled at no net economic cost.
• Maps out the current status and expectations of global climate and energy policy – what is happening and what (more) is needed?
• Sets out four specific measures for the energy sector that can be quickly and effectively implemented, at no net economic cost, to help keep the 2 °C target alive while international negotiations continue
• Indicates elements of action to achieve further reductions, after 2020
• Demonstrates that the energy sector, in its own interest, needs to address now the risks implicit in climate change – whether they be the physical impacts of climate change or the consequences of more drastic action later by governments as the need to curb emissions becomes imperative
Southeast Asia Energy Outlook 2013
The ten members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) – along with China and India – are shifting the centre of gravity of the global energy system towards Asia.
Energy demand in Southeast Asia has expanded by two‐and‐a‐half times since 1990, its rate of growth among the fastest in the world. Economic and demographic trends point to further growth, lifting the region’s energy use per capita from just half of the global average today. But how will Southeast Asia’s fuel mix evolve? And what will the region’s supply and demand balance mean for oil, gas and coal trade?
The International Energy Agency, in co‐operation with the Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia, has studied these issues in consultation with ASEAN member governments and leading commentators, industry representatives and international experts. This special report, in the World Energy Outlook series, presents the findings.
The report highlights:
• Trends in domestic energy needs and supply prospects, including the status of fossil‐fuel subsidies and energy access
• The central role that coal is set to play in fuelling the region’s power sector
• Implications for energy trade and energy‐import bills
• The level of investment needed to expand energy‐supply infrastructure
• The substantial energy security, economic and environmental gains possible if the region were to realise a "high efficiency scenario"
Iraq Energy Outlook 2012
Iraq is already the world’s third largest oil exporter. It has the resources and intention to increase its oil production vastly. Contracts are already in place. Will Iraq’s ambitions be realised? And what would the implications be for Iraq’s economy and for world oil markets? The obstacles are formidable: political, logistical, legal, regulatory, financial, lack of security and insufficient skilled labour. One example: in 2011 grid electricity could meet only 55% of demand. The International Energy Agency has studied these issues with the support and close cooperation of the government of Iraq and many other leading officials, commentators, industry representatives and international experts. This special report, in the World Energy Outlook series, presents the findings.
• Examines the role of the energy sector in the Iraqi economy today and in the future
• Assesses the oil and gas revenues and investment needs
• Provides a detailed analysis of oil, gas and electricity supply through to 2035, highlighting the challenges of infrastructure development and water availability
• Spells out the associated opportunities and risks, both for world oil markets and the shaping by Iraq of its economy and energy sector.
Golden Rules for a Golden Age of Gas 2012
Natural gas is poised to enter a golden age, but this future hinges critically on the successful development of the world’s vast unconventional gas resources. North American experience shows unconventional gas - notably shale gas - can be exploited economically. Many countries are lining up to emulate this success.
But some governments are hesitant, or even actively opposed. They are responding to public concerns that production might involve unacceptable environmental and social damage.
This report, in the World Energy Outlook series, treats these aspirations and anxieties with equal seriousness. It features two new cases: a Golden Rules Case, in which the highest practicable standards are adopted, gaining industry a "social licence to operate"; and its counterpart, in which the tide turns against unconventional gas as constraints prove too difficult to overcome.
World Energy Outlook 2011: Are we entering a golden age?
What impact will the return of high energy prices have on the fragile economic recovery? Will geopolitical unrest, price volatility and policy inaction defer investment in the oil sector and amplify risks to our energy security? What will renewed uncertainty surrounding the role of nuclear power mean for future energy and environmental trends? Is the gap between our climate actions and our climate goals becoming insurmountable?
The World Energy Outlook 2011 tackles these and other pressing questions. The latest data, policy developments, and the experience of another turbulent year are brought together to provide robust analysis and insight into global energy markets. WEO-2011 once again gives detailed energy demand and supply projections out to 2035, broken down by region, fuel, sector and scenario.
World Energy Outlook 2011: Energy for All
What impact will the return of high energy prices have on the fragile economic recovery? Will geopolitical unrest, price volatility and policy inaction defer investment in the oil sector and amplify risks to our energy security? What will renewed uncertainty surrounding the role of nuclear power mean for future energy and environmental trends? Is the gap between our climate actions and our climate goals becoming insurmountable? World Energy Outlook 2011 tackles these and other pressing questions. The latest data, policy developments, and the experience of another turbulent year are brought together to provide robust analysis and insight into global energy markets. WEO-2011 once again gives detailed energy demand and supply projections out to 2035, broken down by region, fuel, sector and scenario.
World Energy Outlook 2010: How to Make Modern Energy Access Universal?
Special early excerpt of the World Energy Outlook 2010 for the United Nations General Assembly on the Millenium Development Goals.
World Energy Outlook 2009: Climate Change Excerpt
This special early excerpt of WEO-2009 is a contribution from the energy sector to inform the negotiations leading into Copenhagen. It summarises the results of a fully-updated Reference Scenario, detailing by sector and by country/region the trends in energy use and emissions and the investments and funding needed to meet the 450 Scenario.
A full update of energy demand and supply projections to 2040 under different scenarios, and their consequences for energy security, economic prosperity, efficiency, investment, air quality and climate change
Major transformations in the global energy system over the next decades see renewables and natural gas as the big winners in the race to meet energy demand
Each year a series of WEO special reports highlight a specific and timely topic, such as air pollution or the water energy nexus, or focus on a country or region, such as Africa or Mexico
The first WEO was published in 1977, and has been published annually since 1998 - all WEO editions from 1994 onward are available for free download
The World Energy Model is a large-scale simulation model designed to replicate how energy markets function and is the principal tool used to generate detailed projections for the WEO scenarios
Videos & Webinars
Access a series of presentations, webinars, and short videos from current and previous WEOs
World Energy Outlook 2017
Energy demand and supply projections to 2040 based on different scenarios
Southeast Asia Energy Outlook
Insights for policy makers, industry and other energy stakeholders
Energy Access Outlook: From Poverty to Prosperity
Exploring the close links between energy & development
WEO EventsMore >
- A world in transformation: World Energy Outlook 2017
14 November 2017
- Commentary: The environmental case for natural gas
23 October 2017
- Universal energy access by 2030 is now within reach thanks to growing political will and falling costs
19 October 2017