Tracking Energy Transitions

Comprehensive data and analysis across all fuels and technologies

Tracking progress to determine where to channel investment and policy attention is essential to achieving climate and sustainable development goals. This comprehensive web portal brings together all of the IEA's tracking efforts, featuring the very latest data and rigorous analysis across all fuels and all technologies.


Carbon emissions and fuel trends


The IEA's annual Global Energy & CO2 Status Report provides a snapshot of recent global trends across carbon emissions, fuels, renewable energy sources and energy efficiency. Global energy consumption in 2018 increased at nearly twice the average rate of growth since 2010, driven by a robust global economy and higher heating and cooling needs in some parts of the world. As a result of higher energy consumption, CO2 emissions rose 1.7% last year and hit a new record.
  • Global trends
  • Emissions
  • Oil
  • Gas
  • Coal
  • Renewables
  • Electricity
  • Efficiency
	Total TPED	Gas	Renewables	Oil	Coal	Nuclear
2011	188					
2012	204					
2013	167					
2014	167					
2015	49					
2016	78					
2017	254					
2018		143	81	54	27	23
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	Coal-fired power generation	Other coal use	Other fossil fuels
1990	5.0	3.3	12.2
1991	5.1	3.2	12.3
1992	5.2	2.9	12.4
1993	5.3	2.9	12.5
1994	5.4	2.8	12.5
1995	5.6	3.0	12.8
1996	5.9	2.7	13.2
1997	5.9	2.7	13.5
1998	6.0	2.7	13.7
1999	6.0	2.5	13.9
2000	6.5	2.5	14.2
2001	6.6	2.6	14.3
2002	6.8	2.6	14.4
2003	7.3	2.9	14.7
2004	7.5	3.2	15.2
2005	7.8	3.7	15.5
2006	8.2	3.9	15.7
2007	8.6	4.2	16.1
2008	8.6	4.4	16.2
2009	8.4	4.5	15.8
2010	9.0	4.8	16.5
2011	9.4	5.1	16.7
2012	9.5	5.1	16.9
2013	9.9	5.1	17.1
2014	9.8	5.1	17.2
2015	9.6	5.0	17.5
2016	9.5	4.7	17.8
2017	9.8	4.6	18.1
2018	10.1	4.5	18.6
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	Demand growth
United States	0.54
China	0.45
India	0.21
Africa	0.02
Europe	0.01
Middle East	-0.12
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	China	United States	Europe	Rest of world 
2014	17	22	-56	39
2015	9	18	6	-2
2016	10	3	25	63
2017	30	-10	26	63
2018	42	81	-11	61
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	Change in coal demand
2011	217
2012	65
2013	77
2014	43
2015	-121
2016	-177
2017	35
2018	41
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	Growth in 2018	% of growth (right axis)
China	182	40
Europe	115	26
United States	30	7
India	28	6
Rest of world	95	21
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	Solar PV	Hydro	Wind	Other	Coal	Gas	Nuclear	Oil
Renewables	136	129	132	52				
Coal					258			
Gas						236		
Nuclear							87	
Oil								-37

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	Average change in energy intensity	Average change in energy intensity
2010-14	-2.1	
2015	-2.9	
2016	-2.5	
2017	-1.9	
2018	-1.3	
SDS 2017-40		-3.4
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Sectors and technologies


The IEA's Tracking Clean Energy Progress provides a comprehensive assessment of energy technologies and sectors in terms of achieving clean energy transitions, with the latest information on where technologies are today, where they need to go, and how to get there. Currently, only 4 out of 38 energy technologies and sectors were on track to meet long-term climate, energy access and air pollution goals.
  • Power
  • Buildings
  • Transport
  • Industry
  • Energy integration
	Total	Gas	Coal
2000	9.24	1.76	6.45
2001	9.44	1.84	6.60
2002	9.66	1.93	6.75
2003	10.23	1.99	7.25
2004	10.59	2.09	7.52
2005	11.08	2.18	7.93
2006	11.52	2.25	8.36
2007	12.02	2.36	8.75
2008	11.94	2.42	8.65
2009	11.74	2.42	8.47
2010	12.55	2.63	9.07
2011	13.1	2.67	9.5
2012	13.29	2.78	9.54
2013	13.48	2.71	9.85
2014	13.53	2.73	9.91
2015	13.42	2.83	9.71
2016	13.35	2.96	9.53
2017	13.7	3	9.84
2025	10.31	3.2	6.59
2030	7.72	3.1	4.24
2035	5.22	2.7	2.26
2040	3.69	2.28	1.21
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	Buildings sector emissions
2000	7.550
2001	7.722
2002	7.837
2003	8.161
2004	8.354
2005	8.547
2006	8.605
2007	8.841
2008	8.931
2009	8.862
2010	9.134
2011	9.164
2012	9.291
2013	9.526
2014	9.483
2015	9.441
2016	9.403
2017	9.457
2018	9.539
2019	8.993
2020	8.852
2021	8.648
2022	8.406
2023	8.142
2024	7.870
2025	7.587
2026	7.328
2027	7.060
2028	6.772
2029	6.479
2030	6.166
            
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	Total	Other	Rail	Shipping	Aviation	Road freight vehicles	Passenger road vehicles
2000	5.742	0.138	0.100	0.612	0.675	1.600	2.617
2001	5.771	0.139	0.097	0.587	0.658	1.619	2.671
2002	5.909	0.145	0.100	0.603	0.665	1.648	2.749
2003	6.041	0.150	0.105	0.621	0.661	1.703	2.801
2004	6.315	0.158	0.110	0.669	0.704	1.785	2.888
2005	6.447	0.161	0.116	0.691	0.730	1.830	2.919
2006	6.592	0.161	0.120	0.738	0.739	1.878	2.957
2007	6.797	0.172	0.118	0.776	0.757	1.950	3.023
2008	6.808	0.173	0.109	0.765	0.748	1.974	3.039
2009	6.676	0.148	0.095	0.737	0.710	1.956	3.028
2010	6.960	0.158	0.098	0.785	0.747	2.041	3.132
2011	7.077	0.161	0.109	0.791	0.768	2.093	3.156
2012	7.203	0.150	0.110	0.755	0.779	2.182	3.227
2013	7.340	0.158	0.106	0.761	0.797	2.210	3.308
2014	7.486	0.159	0.103	0.781	0.822	2.263	3.358
2015	7.682	0.159	0.100	0.799	0.861	2.291	3.472
2016	7.763	0.162	0.101	0.819	0.875	2.294	3.513
2025	7.632	0.151	0.070	0.811	0.825	2.299	3.476
2030	7.129	0.148	0.060	0.803	0.778	2.175	3.166
            
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	Direct CO2 emissions
2010	7.72
2011	8.17
2012	8.12
2013	8.25
2014	8.35
2015	8.31
2016	8.33
2025	8.51
2030	8.18
            
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Global transition indicators


The IEA has developed a set of high-level indicators that help to link the ultimate climate impact of the energy sector – total CO2 emissions – with tangible policy actions. This analysis allows us to unpack the underlying drivers of change needed to achieve the IEA Sustainable Development Scenario. Simultaneous change in all of these drivers is needed for clean energy transitions to be effective.
  • CO2 emissions
  • Carbon intensity
  • Electrification
  • Energy intensity
  • Energy efficiency
	Total	Power	Transport	Industry	Buildings
2000	23.12254899	9.30496653	5.757330139	3.800879653	2.714221333
2001	23.47146496	9.5078247	5.788782784	3.827996477	2.747187674
2002	23.78282661	9.63709876	5.927863204	3.818814129	2.744303525
2003	24.82514854	10.20251083	6.061801968	3.998092898	2.834714993
2004	25.99529161	10.5681569	6.338642644	4.435029403	2.8871447
2005	26.96095127	10.92301855	6.473184126	4.851502703	2.8941626
2006	27.80654419	11.35179098	6.619485384	5.090673515	2.869437109
2007	28.86096499	11.85457995	6.82715492	5.361851789	2.870152265
2008	29.08042175	11.82992001	6.835590435	5.513647064	2.93269288
2009	28.68539567	11.65305332	6.702085503	5.482328547	2.906689888
2010	30.33130251	12.40701045	6.987265405	5.95346864	2.94018384
2011	31.16236365	12.97502735	7.091786215	6.181127731	2.866679689
2012	31.48883439	13.24820617	7.162347348	6.16998119	2.843435209
2013	32.10265377	13.48634253	7.358231685	6.201053537	2.954942257
2014	32.13838726	13.43671145	7.481625205	6.228618591	2.907924198
2015	32.08090364	13.25741648	7.699035601	6.150333381	2.91973441
2016	32.05308108	13.24730734	7.85123826	6.003762859	2.945481672
2017	32.5807653	13.58735764			
2020	32.24612668	12.88853129	8.096102647	6.194035911	2.94750274
2025	29.53513792	10.65645934	7.931631026	6.109310592	2.767166861
2030	25.4815813	7.838544571	7.325545654	5.798619773	2.59346829
2035	20.98192906	5.127261698	6.373226853	5.368779096	2.367205417
2040	17.64690866	3.292261607	5.562692461	4.987285508	2.201672592
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	ESCI
2000	3.286270549
2001	3.317545328
2002	3.308043268
2003	3.350260149
2004	3.356051549
2005	3.382367571
2006	3.402190445
2007	3.43843671
2008	3.431862933
2009	3.419917516
2010	3.438960234
2011	3.480863625
2012	3.478571991
2013	3.482537007
2014	3.450828128
2015	3.412827666
2016	3.363330527
2017	3.360169907
2020	3.202303891
2025	2.916691888
2030	2.546392365
2035	2.109485541
2040	1.772192653
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	Electricity share
2000	15.48448651
2001	15.62736543
2002	15.91934398
2003	16.07191326
2004	16.06413277
2005	16.32153433
2006	16.61638462
2007	16.97009826
2008	17.09824051
2009	17.17581826
2010	17.45153155
2011	17.747517
2012	17.9790091
2013	18.21575817
2014	18.38172801
2015	18.48696531
2016	18.80256705
2017	19.03852736
2020	19.48670399
2025	20.90469203
2030	23.11783419
2035	25.63565523
2040	28.13516925
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	Annual change	2017	SDS Target
1990-2013 average	-1.463033605	0	0
2014	-2.862592071	0	0
2015	-2.468057026	0	0
2016	-2.268611633	0	0
2017	0	-1.692631735	0
2018-2040 average	0	0	-3.442427511
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	Actual energy use	Without efficiency
2000	22776.55114	22776.55114
2001	23103.83475	23569.26805
2002	23505.54417	24079.45849
2003	24540.12303	25249.03213
2004	25696.10836	26381.19479
2005	26626.3912	27243.48806
2006	27460.33833	28694.80864
2007	28557.64549	30272.71633
2008	28760.2227	30782.3397
2009	28346.64366	30229.44056
2010	30034.00743	31779.38445
2011	30929.18661	33024.76599
2012	31194.26117	33479.53612
2013	31721.88864	34200.07124
2014	31898.761	34674.2199
2015	31857.63515	34948.33609
2016	31653.45307	35195.20921
2017	32086.83593	36039.41837
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Sustainable Development Goal 7


The IEA tracks progress towards meeting Sustainable Development Goal 7 (SDG 7) providing annual country-by-country data on access to electricity and clean cooking (SDG 7.1) while also serving as the main data source for tracking official progress towards SDG targets on renewables (SDG 7.2) and energy efficiency (SDG 7.3).
  • Access to electricity
  • Access to clean cooking
  • Renewables
  • Energy efficiency


Innovation


Innovation is a critical driver of clean energy transitions. Through research, investments and collaboration, breakthroughs are happening in a wide variety of sectors, helping drive down costs, increase efficiencies and boost deployment.

The IEA's new innovation web portal brings together our comprehensive database of public and private RD&D spending, our technology roadmaps and other in-depth publications, our Technology Collaboration Programmes and our Innovation Tracking Framework featuring "technology innovation gaps" that need to be filled in order to meet long-term clean energy transition goals.
  • Public-sector
  • Private-sector
  • Venture capital
	China	North America	Europe	Japan, Korea, Australia, NZ	Rest of World
2014	2.196749665	7.019	7.172718	3.717	0.76000769
2015	2.498276743	6.787	7.26147	3.165	0.758391505
2016	2.427297918	6.803	7.093977	3.041	0.614127414
2017	3.247656138	6.754	7.736424	3.072	0.635418671
2018	3.808971034	7.554	7.344917	3.185	0.670590218
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	Automotive	Renewables	Electricity generation and networks	Nuclear	Thermal power and combustion equipment	Oil and gas	Other
2010	24.40129482	4.086111605	11.94983281	1.078663724	5.437226573	19.42022801	1.448412696
2011	30.75360361	4.888633083	12.40012725	1.23136692	5.851023924	43.15375371	1.775716091
2012	31.55546201	5.562585593	12.76715078	1.129204395	6.220268618	32.8630639	2.244446315
2013	35.02901651	4.942020586	12.34010859	1.129183302	5.780829895	32.57185752	2.894004622
2014	35.88341919	5.259265541	12.57595756	1.095051597	5.819207139	33.22129218	2.881029037
2015	36.31985874	5.335049557	13.4130463	1.099778717	5.628581541	21.81265661	3.215231623
2016	38.81893906	5.680074764	14.57679978	1.113939219	5.433347172	20.59237873	3.264286858
2017	39.82620496	5.730766641	15.33280386	1.173278838	5.51803247	18.39967208	4.196043173
2018E	41.97104826	6.104542711	15.88810282	1.317823475	5.696256428	18.5159835	4.307292057
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	Transport	Solar	Bioenergy	Other renewables	Energy efficiency	Other clean energy	Other energy
Avg. 2007-2011	0.36261495	0.969517393	0.325778763	0.224807111	0.734683387	0.499278205	0.101653017
2012	0.174021308	0.217109288	0.158632651	0.071287972	0.45665826	0.472649765	0.100364717
2013	0.502000069	0.136997553	0.085121796	0.064618673	0.516554943	0.320327482	0.123966715
2014	0.432045975	0.223762535	0.084511729	0.069278027	0.528618726	0.362831588	0.108877738
2015	0.535012713	0.2358942	0.148042901	0.043385222	0.381109525	0.281285417	0.170795991
2016	2.921751547	0.205411131	0.15601542	0.033784929	0.38481693	0.178074316	0.120297975
2017	1.925326397	0.142874751	0.062030915	0.037308926	0.426400957	0.327512445	0.098812502
2018	5.443411536	0.195298292	0.013259147	0.008937551	0.493820512	0.571981024	0.203516111
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Investment


The IEA’s World Energy Investment highlights the ways in which investment decisions taken today are determining how energy supply and demand will unfold tomorrow. It considers whether current energy investment trends are sufficient and targeted appropriately to realise the world’s energy transition and energy security objectives.
  • Overview
  • Energy Efficiency
  • Electricity
  • Fuel supply
	Low-carbon energy	Electricity networks
2014	595	276
2015	605	292
2016	622	303
2017	622	296
2018	620	293
Annual average 2025-30 (SDS)	1585	450
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	Investment
Industry	38
Transport	63
Buildings	139
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	Fossil fuel power	Nuclear	Renewable power	Electricity networks	Battery storage
2005	128	7	120	203	0.02
2006	136	7	142	217	0.01
2007	150	8	183	231	0
2008	167	12	216	249	0.11
2009	174	17	245	236	0.06
2010	173	21	293	255	0.09
2011	176	23	314	264	0.22
2012	172	25	295	255	0.18
2013	158	31	282	263	0.42
2014	148	35	286	276	0.8
2015	143	36	306	292	1.49
2016	139	42	313	303	2.43
2017	133	47	307	296	2.84
2018	127	47	304	293	4.12
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	Nominal capex
2010	511
2011	586
2012	695
2013	731
2014	779
2015	583
2016	434
2017	450
2018	477
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Fossil fuel subsidy phase-out


The IEA has been systematically measuring fossil-fuel consumption subsidies for more than a decade. Our data and analysis supports efforts to phase out these subsidies, and shows the impact of fossil-fuel subsidy removal for energy markets, climate change and government budgets.

	Oil	Gas	Coal	Electricity	IEA average crude oil import price (right axis)
2010	184	100	3	138	88
2011	242	94	4	143	118
2012	275	119	3	144	118
2013	275	107	2	130	112
2014	244	93	1	121	102
2015	140	73	1	102	52
2016	105	48	2	117	42
2017	137	57	2	106	52
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Countries

The IEA's tracking analysis is built on a foundation of energy data for IEA member countries, association countries, and beyond. Explore historical data across a range of indicators on the IEA statistics site.

Explore energy statistics for: