Member and key partner country emergency policies


IEA member countries use very different energy mixes to meet their needs, as illustrated in the chart below. Most countries still have a substantial share of oil in their energy mixes. As oil is expected to remain a major component of global energy demand for the time being, particularly in the transportation sector, maintaining the IEA emergency response capability will continue to remain essential to ensure security of supply.

	Oil	Coal	Natural gas	Nuclear	Hydro	Wind	Solar	Geothermal	Biofuels and waste
Australia      	41.9	42.9	32.2	0.0	1.1	1.0	0.9	0.0	5.3
Austria        	11.5	3.2	6.9	0.0	3.2	0.4	0.3	0.0	6.5
Belgium        	22.9	3.2	14.0	6.8	0.0	0.5	0.3	0.0	3.5
Canada         	94.3	18.4	87.0	26.4	32.7	2.3	0.3	0.0	13.8
Czech Republic 	8.6	16.6	6.5	7.0	0.2	0.0	0.2	0.0	4.1
Denmark        	5.8	1.7	2.9	0.0	0.0	1.2	0.1	0.0	3.9
Estonia        	0.3	3.8	0.4	0.0	0.0	0.1	0.0	0.0	0.9
Finland        	7.9	4.0	2.2	6.1	1.4	0.2	0.0	0.0	9.1
France         	71.0	8.8	35.0	114.0	4.7	1.8	0.8	0.2	15.7
Germany        	100.9	79.4	65.1	23.9	1.6	6.8	4.0	0.2	29.9
Greece         	11.2	5.6	2.7	0.0	0.5	0.4	0.5	0.0	1.4
Hungary        	6.9	2.4	7.5	4.1	0.0	0.1	0.1	0.1	2.9
Ireland        	6.1	2.2	3.8	0.0	0.1	0.6	0.0	0.0	0.5
Italy          	53.6	12.4	55.3	0.0	3.9	1.3	2.2	5.5	14.6
Japan          	184.9	117.5	100.0	2.5	7.3	0.4	3.4	2.4	11.4
Korea          	102.7	80.8	39.3	42.9	0.2	0.1	0.5	0.1	5.9
Luxembourg     	2.2	0.0	0.8	0.0	0.0	0.0	0.0	0.0	0.2
Netherlands    	27.7	10.9	28.9	1.1	0.0	0.6	0.1	0.1	3.6
New Zealand    	6.8	1.4	4.1	0.0	2.1	0.2	0.0	4.9	1.2
Norway         	10.9	0.8	5.4	0.0	11.9	0.2	0.0	0.0	1.6
Poland         	23.3	48.3	13.8	0.0	0.2	0.9	0.1	0.0	8.3
Portugal       	9.4	3.2	4.1	0.0	0.7	1.0	0.1	0.2	3.0
Slovak Republic	3.3	3.3	3.9	4.0	0.3	0.0	0.0	0.0	1.4
Spain          	49.3	13.3	24.5	14.9	2.4	4.2	3.2	0.0	7.0
Sweden         	9.9	2.1	0.7	14.7	6.5	1.4	0.0	0.0	11.9
Switzerland    	9.3	0.1	2.9	6.0	3.3	0.0	0.2	0.3	2.5
Turkey         	38.7	34.5	39.4	0.0	5.8	1.0	1.0	4.8	3.3
United Kingdom 	59.7	23.9	61.3	18.3	0.5	3.5	0.7	0.0	11.1
United States  	794.0	374.1	646.4	216.4	21.6	16.6	5.8	9.0	98.8
EU28	516.0	262.9	357.5	223.5	29.3	26.0	13.1	6.5	149.5
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Each IEA member country is obliged to maintain a set of regulations and/or policies that provide a framework for emergency oil stockholding and data reporting, and that facilitate timely participation in IEA collective actions in case of a severe oil supply disruption. In order to ensure that each country is sufficiently prepared for emergencies and can effectively contribute in case of collective action, the IEA conducts peer reviews (Emergency Response Review (ERR)) of its member countries on a regular basis. These reviews assess how member countries manage energy security challenges, promote emergency policy development, and support mutual learning through the proactive exchange of best practices. Emergency response policies of natural gas and electricity are also assessed and examined in these reviews. IEA Association and Key Partner countries may also be subject to such reviews upon their request.

For the IEA members, as well as several Association and Partner countries, the findings of these ERRs have been collected in the publication Energy Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries 2014 (see below paragraph with links to individual chapters).

In 2019, the IEA conducted a region-specific study on energy security; Energy Security in ASEAN+6, which put focus on ten ASEAN countries and six other countries in the Asia-Pacific region: Australia, China, India, Japan, Korea and New Zealand. The report covers the key energy sectors of oil, natural gas and electricity, and identifies the main energy security issues shared among this group of countries in that region. These include a high level of vulnerability to natural disasters and heavy dependence on imports of fossil fuels, which must pass through major global chokepoints, such as the Strait of Hormuz. The report provides policy advice, primarily for the region’s developing countries, based on the emergency response systems and accumulated experience in the IEA and member countries.

ENERGY SUPPLY SECURITY 2014

The following excerpts from the Energy Supply Security 2014 publication can be downloaded individually; however, they are not intended as stand-alone publications.

Part 1: CHAPTER 1: Overview - CHAPTER 2: Emergency oil response systems in IEA member countries - CHAPTER 3: Natural gas security in the IEA

Part 2: CHAPTER 4: Emergency response systems of individual IEA countries

Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States

Chapter 4: References

Part 3: CHAPTER 5: Emergency response systems of individual IEA Association and Partner countries

ASEAN, Chile, China (People's Republic of), India

Chapter 5: References

Part 4: Annexes

ENERGY SUPPLY SECURITY (2007-2013)

Link to the Oil and Gas Emergency Policy Reports (2007-2013)

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