Energy Efficiency: Economy-wide

The global exchange for energy efficiency policies, data and impacts

Improvements in energy efficiency since 2000 avoided the need for 12% more energy use and emissions in 2017. By implementing cost-effective energy efficiency opportunities available today, global energy demand could be limited to levels only marginally higher than today and emissions could fall to levels 12% lower than today.


Energy efficiency delivers benefits across the global economy


Energy Efficiency has created substantial benefits across all sectors of the global economy. Efficiency gains since 2000 prevented 12% more energy use and emissions, and 20% more fossil fuel imports in 2017.

While global gross domestic product (GDP) could double by 2040, the Efficient World Scenario (EWS) shows the potential for efficiency alone to limit the increase in primary energy demand to levels only marginally higher than those today. This would result in a peak in energy-related greenhouse gas emissions before 2020, which would subsequently fall by 12% in 2040 compared with today.

Efficiency gains would also enhance energy security, reduced household expenditure by over USD 550 billion, and reduce air pollutants by around one-third compared with today.

	Primary energy demand	GDP	Energy intensity
2000	100	100	100
2001	100.9202171	102.3798011	98.57434373
2002	103.0679049	105.3428466	97.84044027
2003	106.6972756	109.625601	97.32879413
2004	111.4796021	115.3548141	96.6406153
2005	114.4940249	120.8470414	94.74292763
2006	117.8531697	127.2599593	92.60820949
2007	121.0004846	134.1268484	90.21347036
2008	122.4274088	137.9861216	88.72443647
2009	121.4042486	137.3650489	88.38074139
2010	128.1794056	144.5926035	88.64866013
2011	130.0994861	150.5297701	86.42774517
2012	132.0963366	155.4899051	84.95492783
2013	133.7661984	160.7214955	83.22856753
2014	135.420733	166.3138612	81.42480246
2015	135.930098	171.8429952	79.10133192
2016	136.6686525	177.2039716	77.12505047
2017	139.3606633	183.7214644	75.85431769
2025	144.35664	243.984617	59.16628754
2030	146.1132126	291.2249247	50.17194621
2035	147.3607783	342.4311707	43.03369286
2040	149.398847	395.535594	37.77127755

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                            "text": "Energy demand, GDP and energy intensity"
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	Historical	New Policies Scenario	Efficient World Scenario
2000	23.12		
2001	23.47		
2002	23.78		
2003	24.83		
2004	26		
2005	26.96		
2006	27.81		
2007	28.86		
2008	29.08		
2009	28.69		
2010	30.33		
2011	31.16		
2012	31.49		
2013	32.1		
2014	32.14		
2015	32.08		
2016	32.05		
2017	32.16	32.16	32.16
2018		32.41	32.17
2019		32.51	32.06
2020		32.54	31.86
2021		32.67	31.74
2022		32.85	31.64
2023		33.01	31.5
2024		33.18	31.34
2025		33.39	31.21
2026		33.59	31.1
2027		33.74	30.93
2028		33.91	30.75
2029		34.09	30.58
2030		34.26	30.38
2031		34.4	30.15
2032		34.52	29.9
2033		34.66	29.68
2034		34.81	29.48
2035		34.97	29.32
2036		35.11	29.17
2037		35.26	29.01
2038		35.41	28.88
2039		35.56	28.74
2040		35.69	28.62

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Policy insights


The IEA Efficient World Strategy highlights a range of actions through which governments can enable greater energy efficiency gains across all sectors.

Explore economy-wide policies

Data


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	Change in demand
2011	1.487374963
2012	1.544542991
2013	1.256420795
2014	1.247440375
2015	0.366758243
2016	0.574764862
2017	1.966867191
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	Global	Global without China	Efficient World Scenario (2018-2040)
2011	-2.52	-3.08	0.00
2012	-1.69	-1.47	0.00
2013	-2.04	-1.78	0.00
2014	-2.16	-1.65	0.00
2015	-2.86	-2.34	0.00
2016	-2.47	-1.33	0.00
2017	-1.65	-1.21	0.00
2018-2040	0.00	0.00	-2.99
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Note: Countries covered are IEA countries plus Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Russia and South Africa.

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	Uncovered	Covered
Industry	64	36
Transport	68	32
Residential buildings	68	32
Non-residential buildings	57	43



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	2017	2016	2000-15
Brazil	0.08	0.12	0.55
Australia	0.08	0.07	1.13
India	0.5	0.44	1.15
Denmark	0.47	0.44	2.39
Korea	0.38	0.38	3.87
Mexico	0.71	0.6	3.48
Canada	0.63	0.65	4.24
Italy	1.15	0.88	3.98
France	1.08	1.01	4.48
United States	0.94	0.85	5.21
Germany	1.37	1.06	6.7
United Kingdom	1.5	1.29	6.97
Japan	1.01	1.09	10.01
China	0.32	0.28	13.17
Total	0.51	0.47	5.58
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	Strength	Average strength
France	0.913043478	0.41985323
Uruguay	0.837512377	0.41985323
Bulgaria	0.696814069	0.41985323
Spain	0.693941797	0.41985323
Luxembourg	0.686136171	0.41985323
Denmark	0.635940014	0.41985323
Poland	0.603441562	0.41985323
Austria	0.6	0.41985323
Italy	0.506467489	0.41985323
Slovenia	0.5	0.41985323
Ireland	0.49248145	0.41985323
Australia	0.379967173	0.41985323
United States	0.109056125	0.41985323
South Africa	0.093813022	0.41985323
China	0.066023842	0.41985323
Canada	0.06289236	0.41985323
United Kingdom	0.061824366	0.41985323
Brazil	0.021930286	0.41985323
Korea	0.015925793	0.41985323
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	New policies	Existing policies	Covered by previous policies
2017	0.01	1.25	32.37
2016	0.04	1.52	30.81
2015	0.11	1.09	29.62
2014	0.18	0.86	28.58
2013	0.14	0.91	27.53
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Coverage of energy utility obligations, by country/region

	
	Europe	China	United States	Brazil	Other
2005	2.0	0.0	1.4	2.2	1.5
2006	3.9	0.0	1.6	2.2	1.5
2007	3.8	0.0	1.8	2.2	1.5
2008	3.8	0.0	2.5	2.3	1.6
2009	3.7	0.0	2.8	2.3	1.6
2010	3.6	3.3	3.3	2.4	1.6
2011	3.3	3.7	3.5	2.4	1.6
2012	3.4	3.9	3.5	2.5	1.6
2013	3.6	4.2	3.6	2.5	2.5
2014	4.4	4.3	3.6	2.5	2.4
2015	4.8	4.5	3.7	2.4	2.4
2016	4.8	4.4	3.6	2.4	2.4
2017	5.0	4.4	3.6	2.4	2.4

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Show me

 

	With efficiency	Without efficiency

2000	22.8	22.8
2001	23.1	23.6
2002	23.4	24.0
2003	24.4	25.1
2004	25.6	26.3
2005	26.5	27.2
2006	27.4	28.6
2007	28.4	30.1
2008	28.7	30.7
2009	28.3	30.2
2010	29.9	31.7
2011	30.8	32.8
2012	31.1	33.4
2013	31.7	34.2
2014	31.7	34.5
2015	31.6	34.7
2016	31.6	35.2
2017	32.1	36.0

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	Historical	New Policies Scenario	Efficient World Scenario
2000	23.12		
2001	23.47		
2002	23.78		
2003	24.83		
2004	26.00		
2005	26.96		
2006	27.81		
2007	28.86		
2008	29.08		
2009	28.69		
2010	30.33		
2011	31.16		
2012	31.49		
2013	32.10		
2014	32.14		
2015	32.08		
2016	32.05		
2017	32.16	32.16	32.16
2018		32.41	32.17
2019		32.51	32.06
2020		32.54	31.86
2021		32.67	31.74
2022		32.85	31.64
2023		33.01	31.50
2024		33.18	31.34
2025		33.39	31.21
2026		33.59	31.10
2027		33.74	30.93
2028		33.91	30.75
2029		34.09	30.58
2030		34.26	30.38
2031		34.40	30.15
2032		34.52	29.90
2033		34.66	29.68
2034		34.81	29.48
2035		34.97	29.32
2036		35.11	29.17
2037		35.26	29.01
2038		35.41	28.88
2039		35.56	28.74
2040		35.69	28.62

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	Transport	Non-transport	Savings as a % of energy bill (right axis)
Germany	153.1	220.5	18
Japan	161.7	159.2	26
United Kingdom	173.6	142.9	19.00
France	122.4	192.7	18.00
United States	26.8	144.8	11.00
Mexico	27.8	29.5	9.00
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Related resources


Explore efficiency by sector

Access information, data and resources and learn about efficiency opportunities in each sector.

Economy-wide efficiency

Economy-wide

Economy-wide actions to improve energy efficiency include setting national targets, market-based instruments and creating a supportive enabling environment for investments.

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Buildings sector

Buildings

The buildings sector consumes 30% of all energy and despite some efficiency improvements, demand for cooling, heating, and lighting as well as residential appliances and equipment continues to grow.

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Transport sector

Transport

Countries can improve the sustainability of their transport systems by implementing advanced technologies, improving fuel efficiency and shifting to lower-carbon fuels and transport modes.

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Industry sector

Industry

There are large opportunities for industry to improve energy efficiency through improved equipment and process design and the adoption of energy management systems and practices.

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