Appliances and Equipment


Residential appliances and equipment represent one of the fastest-growing energy loads. The IEA estimates that at least 3.7 EJ per year could be saved cost-effectively by 2030.

Rapid energy demand growth is particularly pronounced in the realm of space cooling, which is the subject of IEA’s most recent analysis and related publication: The Future of Cooling: Opportunities for energy efficient air conditioning. 

	Residential	Commercial	Share in buildings
1990	209	399	2.40
1991	223	415	2.45
1992	187	404	2.28
1993	215	419	2.36
1994	225	461	2.56
1995	235	491	2.67
1996	222	510	2.63
1997	228	545	2.77
1998	291	614	3.27
1999	299	636	3.30
2000	305	671	3.40
2001	332	692	3.53
2002	392	756	3.91
2003	402	769	3.88
2004	434	807	4.05
2005	504	840	4.33
2006	517	820	4.28
2007	570	862	4.52
2008	558	886	4.49
2009	555	878	4.47
2010	679	923	4.86
2011	684	927	4.92
2012	729	949	5.08
2013	721	983	5.01
2014	740	998	5.08
2015	832	1025	5.37
2016	921	1101	5.86
2017	917	1054	5.67
2018	969	1106	5.90
2019	1005	1132	6.01
2020	1053	1159	6.15
2021	1114	1190	6.37
2022	1171	1224	6.55
2023	1220	1259	6.72
2024	1285	1298	6.93
2025	1360	1338	7.17
2026	1421	1380	7.41
2027	1499	1423	7.66
2028	1568	1466	7.89
2029	1659	1509	8.17
2030	1738	1553	8.43
2031	1844	1597	8.77
2032	1937	1641	9.05
2033	2032	1685	9.32
2034	2141	1728	9.63
2035	2239	1769	9.91
2036	2345	1810	10.24
2037	2455	1849	10.53
2038	2577	1889	10.84
2039	2684	1928	11.12
2040	2793	1966	11.41
2041	2904	2005	11.73
2042	3013	2042	12.01
2043	3137	2079	12.32
2044	3272	2115	12.65
2045	3389	2150	12.94
2046	3506	2185	13.28
2047	3597	2218	13.50
2048	3700	2251	13.76
2049	3806	2283	14.02
2050	3893	2316	14.21
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Source: The Future of Cooling 2018

Beyond space cooling, the suite of IEA appliance and equipment analysis and associated recommendations covers minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) or labels, energy performance test standards and measurement protocols, and complementary market transformation policies. Mandatory energy performance standards and labels have proven to be a highly cost-effective policy tool for encouraging the reduction of average energy consumption in equipment without reducing consumer choice or triggering sustained increases in prices.

The effective implementation of energy efficiency policies for appliances and equipment relies upon the use of accurate energy performance measurement standards and protocols. National energy efficiency policy objectives will be undermined by energy measurement standards that fail to reflect actual energy use and/or provide a true in-use efficiency ranking of equipment.

Furthermore, experience shows that international co-ordination on test standards for globally traded products can reduce industry compliance costs. Governments should complement mandatory energy performance requirements and labels with a package of measures that accelerate the transformation of the appliance market towards high-efficiency products.

Publications

The Future of Cooling

Published: 15 May 2018

The use of energy for space cooling is growing faster than for any other end use in buildings, more than tripling between 1990 and 2016. Space cooling – typically by means of an electric-powered fan or air conditioning (AC) system – is contributing increasingly to global energy demand. Global sales of ACs have been growing steadily and significantly: since 1990, annual sales of ACs more than tripled to 135 million units.

Policy Pathway - Monitoring, Verification and Enforcement

Published: 4 December 2017

The Policy Pathway series is designed to guide policy makers on the essential steps in implementing policies from the 25 IEA Energy Efficiency Recommendations. This specific pathway aims to provide clear guidance to policy makers and relevant stakeholders on best practice compliance (through monitoring, verification and enforcement [MVE]) in end-use appliance and equipment standards and labelling (S&L) programmes.

Energy-Efficiency Policy Opportunities for Electric Motor-Driven Systems

Published: 8 May 2011

This paper is the first global analysis of energy consumption and energy efficiency potential of EMDS (electric motor- driven system). The electric motors and systems they drive are the largest single electricity end use accounting for more than 40% of global electricity consumption. Huge energy efficiency potential was found untapped in EMDS - around 25 % of EMDS electricity use could be saved cost-effectively, reducing total global electricity demand by about 10%.

Walking the Torque: Proposed work plan for Energy-Efficiency Policy Opportunities for Electric Motor-driven Systems

Published: 8 May 2011

Electric motor-driven system is the largest single energy end use accounting for more than 40% of global electricity consumption. This paper sets out an ambitious but achievable target with the global work plan to improve the energy efficiency of electric motor-driven system by 10% to 15% based on the finding of working paper “Energy-Efficiency Policy Opportunities for Electric Motor-Driven Systems (Waide et al., 2011)”. 

Transforming Global Markets for Clean Energy Products – Energy Efficient Equipment, Vehicles and Solar Photovoltaics

Published: 19 July 2010

This paper looks at three clean energy product categories: equipment energy efficiency; low-carbon transport, including high-efficiency vehicles and electric/plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EV/PHEVs); and solar photovoltaic (PV) power. Each section identifies ways to enhance global co-operation among major economies through case studies and examples, and ends with specific suggestions for greater international collaboration on market transformation efforts. An annex with more detailed case studies on energy-efficient electric motors, televisions, external power supplies and compact fluorescent lights is included in the paper.

Gadgets and Gigawatts: Policies for Energy Efficient Electronics

Published: 20 October 2009

A global assessment of the changing pattern in residential electricity consumption over the past decade and an in-depth analysis of the role played by electronic equipment.

Collaboration

The breadth and coverage of analytical expertise in the IEA Technology Collaboration Programmes (TCPs) are unique assets that underpin IEA efforts to support innovation for energy security, economic growth and environmental protection.

The IEA's buildings TCPs are co-ordinated by the Technology Collaboration Programme Building Co-ordination Group. Find out more about individual programmes below.

Technology Roadmaps

The IEA has developed and regularly updates a series of global, low-carbon energy technology roadmaps which identify priority actions for governments, industry, financial partners and civil society that will advance technology development and uptake to achieve international climate change goals.

Browse all Technology Roadmaps >

Technology Roadmap: Energy Efficient Building Envelopes

Published: 13 December 2013

Overall, buildings are responsible for more than one-third of global energy consumption. While whole-building approaches are ideal, every day building envelope components are upgraded or replaced using technologies that are less efficient than the best options available. These advanced options, which are the primary focus of this roadmap, are needed not only to support whole-building approaches but also to improve the energy efficiency of individual components.

Technology Roadmap: Energy Efficient Buildings - Heating and Cooling Equipment

Published: 16 May 2011

The Energy-Efficient Buildings: Heating and Cooling Equipment Roadmap sets out a detailed pathway for the evolution and deployment of the key underlying technologies. It finds that urgent action is required if the building stock of the future is to consume less energy and result in lower CO2 emissions. The roadmap concludes with a set of near-term actions that stakeholders will need to take to achieve the roadmap’s vision.

Policy briefs

Policy Pathways Brief: Building Energy Performance Certification

Published: 12 April 2017

Buildings consume more than 40% of primary energy in most countries. Cost-effective policy intervention by governments can substantially reduce this consumption, typically by 30-80%, while simultaneously increasing energy security and improving the health and welfare of building occupants.

The International Energy Agency has identified five critical factors to guide policy makers in realising potential savings by certifying the energy performance of buildings to enable informed decisions by purchasers and occupiers.

Read the full Policy Pathways report here: Policy Pathways Brief: Building Energy Performance Certification

Insights Brief: Space Cooling

Published: 7 September 2017

By understanding why increasing energy consumption for space cooling is a growing concern, we can properly develop effective policies and deliver efficient technologies.

The choice of energy efficiency policies and technologies to address space cooling demand should be made using life-cycle calculations that account for the multiple benefits of energy efficiency. Policies and technologies should enable greater increased thermal comfort while reducing the total energy consumed.

Our work on Energy efficiency