Carbon capture, utilisation and storage

A critical tool in the climate energy toolbox

Carbon, capture utilisation and storage (CCUS) is one of the only technology solutions that can significantly reduce emissions from coal and gas power generation and deliver the deep emissions reductions needed across key industrial processes such as steel, cement and chemicals manufacturing, all of which will remain vital building blocks of modern society.


Industry


CCUS is a key technology for reducing CO2 emissions in carbon-intensive industrial processes such as in steel, cement and chemicals production, and in fuel transformation sectors. It can offer some of the least-cost ways of reducing emissions, particularly in processes that produce concentrated streams of CO2, such as ammonia or bioethanol production.

The portfolio of large-scale CCUS applications in industry and fuel transformation has grown substantially in recent years. The first iron and steel-related CCUS facility in Abu Dhabi started operations in 2016. One year later, the world’s first large-scale CCUS project linked with bioenergy came online at the Illinois Industrial CCUS Project producing corn ethanol. The total number of CCS projects in industry and fuel transformation rose to 16 in 2018, when one additional industrial project linked to CO2-EOR came into operation in China. Currently an additional nine projects are under development or in advanced development stage.

Three quarters of the CO2 capture capacity built in the last decade and operating today has been in hydrogen production-related processes, gas processing and biomass fermentation for ethanol production. This represents almost half of all investment in CCUS made in the last decade

CCUS in industry in the Sustainable Development Scenario

In the Sustainable Development Scenario (SDS), CCUS contributes 10.6 Gt CO2 of emissions reductions in the industry sector through 2040. The SDS targets 1 340 Mtpa by 2040, including 1 160 Mtpa in industrial applications and 180 Mtpa in fuel transformation.

	SDS Target	Iron and steel	Chemicals	Biofuels	Refining	Natural gas processing
2000		0	0.7	0	3	9.15
2010		0	0.7	0	3	18.25
2015		0	1.7	0	5	20.2
2017		0.8	1.7	1	5	20.2
2025		0.8	3.05	1	6.3	25.15
2030	400					
2040	1340					
{
  "chart": {
    "type": "area",
    "height": "45%"
  },
  "title":{
  	"text":"CCUS in industry and fuel transformation"
  },
  "tooltip": {
    "valueSuffix": " MtCO2",
"shared": true,
"valueDecimals": 1,
"footerFormat": "Total: {point.total} MtCO2"
  },
  "colors": [
    "#00b050",
    "#31869b",
    "#93cddd",
    "#92d050",
    "#b1a0c7",
    "#31869b"
  ],
  "plotOptions": {
    "area": {
      "stacking": "normal"
    },
    "series": {
      "marker": {
        "enabled": false
      }
    }
  },
  "yAxis": {
    "title": {
      "text": "MtCO2"
    }
  },
  "xAxis": {
    "plotBands": [
      {
        "from": 2000,
        "to": 2017,
        "color": "#fafafa",
        "label": {
          "text": "Historical"
        }
      },
{
        "from": 2017,
        "to": 2025,
        "label": {
          "text": "Project pipeline"
        },
"borderColor": "#ececec",
"borderWidth": 1
      }
    ]
  },
  "series": [
    {
"type": "line",
      "className": "noline",
      "marker": {
        "enabled": true
      },
      "dataLabels": {
        "enabled": true,
        "format": "{x} SDS Target",
        "style": {
          "color": "#4d4d4d"
        }
      },
"tooltip": {
"valueDecimals": 0
}
    }
  ]
}

The vast majority of the CO2 is captured from three subsectors, namely the production of chemicals and petrochemicals, iron and steel, and cement. The chemicals and petrochemicals sector represents the largest source of CO2 captured from industrial processes, with CCUS linked to the production of ammonia and methanol, as well as high-value chemicals such as ethylene, propylene and aromatics.

The role of CCUS in industry grows over time in the SDS as deeper emissions cuts are needed and as other options become exhausted or less economical. Expanding CCUS in industry is crucial to achieve ambitious climate targets since it is one of the few technology options that can significantly reduce direct CO2 emissions from the industrial sector (including process emissions), which make up around one-quarter of global CO2 emissions.

Next: Power ▶