Renewable power

Tracking Clean Energy Progress

🕐 Last updated Friday, 14 December 2018

More efforts needed

In 2017, renewable electricity generation grew 6% and reached almost a quarter of global power output, thanks to the continued growth of solar PV and wind technologies. Despite these positive trends (especially with PV), renewable power as a whole needs more improvement to meet SDS targets. Net annual capacity additions for all renewables must increase over 2017-30, while the share of renewables in global electricity generation must reach 47% by 2030, from 25% in 2017.


Share of renewables in power generation

To meet SDS targets, the share of renewables must reach 47% by 2030.

	Low carbon 	Renewables
2000	35.3	18.5
2001	35	18.1
2002	34.4	18
2003	33.3	17.6
2004	33.6	18
2005	33.3	18.2
2006	33	18.3
2007	31.8	18.1
2008	32.2	18.7
2009	32.9	19.5
2010	32.6	19.8
2011	31.8	20.2
2012	32	21.2
2013	32.6	22
2014	33.3	22.7
2015	33.7	23.1
2016	34.9	24.3
2025	50.3	37.6
2030	62.9	47.2
2035	75.7	56.2
2040	82.8	61.8
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In 2017, renewables saw the highest rate of generation growth among all energy sources. Wind power accounted for the largest share of overall renewables growth, at 26% thanks to a relatively windy year, followed by solar PV (19%), hydropower (3%) and bioenergy (5%).

Renewable power overall needs to increase its annual growth rate from 6% to 6.5% to meet the IEA Sustainable Development Scenario targets by 2030. This requires faster deployment of all renewable technologies including hydropower, which still represents two-thirds of global renewable generation today.

Solar PV is the only renewable technology on track to meet SDS targets with record-level new deployment in 2017, thanks to continuous policy support and cost reductions. Grid-connected onshore wind capacity additions declined for the second year in row last year; consequently onshore wind lost its “on-track” status, as SDS targets require a continuous growth in new build capacity.


Renewable generation by technology

Historical and targets

	Ocean	CSP	Geothermal	Bioenergy	Solar PV	Offshore wind	Onshore wind	Hydropower
2000	0.546	0.526	51.98934	132.2011	0.979692	0.114542	31.23444	2699.993
2001	0.524	0.565	51.57394	132.6842	1.24401	0.193162	38.22241	2641.598
2002	0.533	0.569	52.29396	146.0276	1.605249	0.360165	52.45037	2711.412
2003	0.53	0.548656	54.09058	157.0191	2.060998	1.302572	62.88915	2726.151
2004	0.508	0.587081	56.50331	172.3093	2.750592	1.928948	82.45682	2896.784
2005	0.516	0.596528	58.28453	192.9179	3.97418	2.406916	101.4763	3019.033
2006	0.49	0.554597	59.6115	206.979	5.573659	2.907392	130.1101	3128.598
2007	0.495	0.684684	62.29425	226.5944	7.483642	3.856128	166.9448	3167.133
2008	0.487	0.898314	64.91521	245.1065	11.91607	4.999059	216.0227	3290.473
2009	0.486	0.922769	67.03817	266.8805	20.09145	4.993894	272.4174	3341.485
2010	0.513	1.689603	68.11999	322.471	32.38969	7.731891	333.601	3531.133
2011	0.511	2.986407	69.22786	341.2177	63.42934	11.77503	423.7751	3600.124
2012	0.496	4.908005	70.20511	370.8121	99.19163	14.82129	509.0054	3758.024
2013	0.927	6.248507	71.62312	406.1779	140.3959	20.84657	624.8819	3888.967
2014	0.999	8.88314	77.38463	445.2008	190.1175	25.14013	692.6491	3994.666
2015	1.006	10.22392	80.44563	472.7326	246.5564	38.98993	799.0379	3978.001
2016	1.017173	13.30545	83.58532	500.2016	312.2587391	41.86629	915.8904	4143.88
2017	1.087592	15.62846	87.66306	550.9116	416.2587391	51.38872	1044.928	4226.88
2018	1.112022	18.14929	91.59851	584.8124	561.6846078	62.66337	1158.494	4346.048
2019	1.156612	21.00135	96.38501	618.5176	688.3802642	76.33361	1275.545	4435.419
2020	1.199213	24.22051	101.1312	651.8261	821.3339557	92.43994	1396.229	4498.869
2021	1.248958	28.29023	105.4603	683.1503	958.7215967	108.9667	1528.752	4554.865
2022	1.335705486	31.95059102	109.8431216	713.3196288	1098.621794	128.6340728	1653.687314	4608.398975
2025	4.78501182	99.138961	169.9901159	871.7176203	1628.620507	274.1494155	2510.666905	5105.565026
2030	16.62621928	286.580279	291.6784866	1109.242458	2732.27732	548.5579267	3644.005981	5848.398857
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Recent trends in renewable power

The vast majority of new renewable power capacity was spurred by administratively set feed-in tariffs or premiums, with most notable examples in China and Japan.

At the same time, competitive auctions are emerging as an effective instrument to foster new renewable capacities in an increasing number of countries. Auctions have been raising the interest of policy-makers, as they combine competitive pricing with volume control and support cost-effective deployment of renewables. In 2017, almost 24 GW of new renewable capacity was awarded in auctions in 20 countries, with solar and wind technologies representing over 95% of it.

Renewable energy auction prices continued to decline for solar PV and onshore wind, and ranged from 20 to 50 USD/MWh in Argentina, India, Chile, Mexico and Turkey.

Record low prices were also achieved for offshore wind (55-80 USD/MWh) and CSP (73 USD/MWh in the United Arab Emirates) for projects to be commissioned over 2019-25. In Germany’s first offshore wind auction, three projects (totaling 1.4 GW) bid at zero for the first time, meaning that if they are commissioned their electricity will be sold at the wholesale price starting from 2024/25.

Investment

Investment in renewable projects that came online in 2017 decreased by nearly 7%, though remained high by historical standards at around USD 300 billion, while new installed global capacities slightly increased compared to 2016.

Solar PV investment rose to record levels, even with falling specific system costs per watt installed. Offshore wind investment also rose to record levels, with the commissioning of 4 GW of new plants, mostly in Europe.

Onshore wind investment fell by nearly 15%, though part of the decline stemmed from falling technology costs.

Investment associated with the hydropower coming online in 2017 fell by 30% to its lowest level in over a decade, with a slowdown in China, Brazil and in Southeast Asia. However, final investment decisions for hydropower rebounded in 2017 to over 35 GW. This rebound may boost future investment, although it is not enough to put hydropower on track to meet long-term goals, as described below.

Renewables 2018

Released: 8 October 2018

Renewables 2018 is the IEA market analysis and forecast from 2018 to 2023 on renewable energy and technologies. It provides global trends and developments for renewable energy in the electricity, heat and transport sectors.

Explore the findings Download the full report

Are renewable technologies on track?

While solar PV was a bright spot in 2017, surpassing the growth rate envisioned in the SDS, onshore wind began to fall behind and was reclassified as "more efforts needed," putting it in the same category as offshore wind, hydropower and bioenergy power generation. Concentrating solar power, geothermal and ocean power remain well below the growth rates necessary to meet clean energy goals.


Solar PV

Solar PV showed record 40% growth in power generation in 2017 and is well on track to meet its SDS target, which requires average annual growth of 17% between 2017 and 2030.

Read more about solar PV
	Historical	Forecast	SDS Targets
2000	1.0		
2001	1.3		
2002	1.6		
2003	2.0		
2004	2.7		
2005	3.9		
2006	5.5		
2007	7.5		
2008	11.9		
2009	20.0		
2010	32.2		
2011	63.2		
2012	99.0		
2013	139.4		
2014	190.2		
2015	250.2		
2016	328.0		
2017	460.2		
2018		588.8	
2019		710.4	
2020		837.6	
2021		973.9	
2022		1120.7	
2025			1628.6
2030			2732.3
      
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Onshore wind

Onshore wind capacity additions declined by 10% in 2017, marking the second year of decline in a row. This trend is in contrast with SDS generation targets requiring a continuous growth in new build capacity to maintain annual generation growth of 12% through 2030. As a result, onshore wind lost its “on-track” status this year and needs improvement.

Read more about onshore wind
	Historical	Forecast	SDS Targets
2000	31.2		
2001	38.3		
2002	52.5		
2003	62.9		
2004	82.4		
2005	101.4		
2006	130.0		
2007	166.7		
2008	215.6		
2009	272.5		
2010	333.7		
2011	424.3		
2012	509.3		
2013	625.9		
2014	693.7		
2015	799.6		
2016	916.2		
2017	1090.5		
2018		1161.4	
2019		1268.6	
2020		1378.3	
2021		1492.3	
2022		1604.8	
2025			2510.7
2030			3644.0
      
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Offshore wind

Offshore wind showed strong signs of progress with 32% generation growth in 2017, but it needs to accelerate even faster to be in line with SDS target.

Read more about offshore wind
	Historical	Forecast	SDS Targets
2000	0.1254		
2001	0.2040		
2002	0.3830		
2003	1.3500		
2004	2.0070		
2005	2.5213		
2006	3.0853		
2007	4.1483		
2008	5.4100		
2009	4.9692		
2010	7.7072		
2011	11.7104		
2012	14.7941		
2013	20.7191		
2014	24.6310		
2015	38.9349		
2016	41.4901		
2017	54.6049		
2018		65.7914	
2019		81.4214	
2020		98.3522	
2021		115.6838	
2022		140.7122	
2025			274.1494
2030			548.5579
      
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Hydropower

Hydropower generation increased by an estimated 0.5% in 2017. However, capacity growth declined for a fourth consecutive year since 2013. To reach its SDS target, hydropower generation would need to grow by almost 40% in order to reach more than 5800 TWh by 2030.

Read more about hydropower
	Historical	Forecast	SDS Targets
2000	2699.99		
2001	2641.60		
2002	2711.41		
2003	2726.15		
2004	2896.78		
2005	3019.03		
2006	3128.60		
2007	3167.13		
2008	3290.47		
2009	3341.49		
2010	3531.13		
2011	3600.12		
2012	3758.02		
2013	3888.97		
2014	3994.67		
2015	3978.00		
2016	4143.88		
2017	4226.88		
2018		4346.05	
2019		4435.42	
2020		4498.87	
2021		4554.87	
2022		4608.40	
2025			5105.57
2030			5848.40
      
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Bioenergy

In 2017, bioenergy power generation increased 7%. However, growth was lower than in previous years, and bioenergy power generation is forecast to increase by only 6% per year over the next five years. As a consequence, bioenergy needs improvement to reach its SDS electricity generation target of more than 1100 TWh by 2030.

Read more about bioenergy
	Historical	Forecast	SDS Targets
2000	132.201		
2001	132.684		
2002	146.028		
2003	157.019		
2004	172.309		
2005	192.918		
2006	206.979		
2007	226.594		
2008	245.107		
2009	266.881		
2010	322.471		
2011	341.218		
2012	370.812		
2013	406.178		
2014	445.201		
2015	472.733		
2016	500.202		
2017	550.912		
2018		584.812	
2019		618.518	
2020		651.826	
2021		683.150	
2022		713.320	
2025			871.718
2030			1109.242
      
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Concentrating solar power (CSP)

In 2017, concentrating solar power (CSP) capacity grew by just 120 MW. Future CSP growth is forecast to come mostly from emerging economies, though deployments have been slow and are not on track to meet the SDS goals.

Read more about CSP, geothermal and ocean power
	Historical	Forecast	SDS Targets
2000	0.526		
2001	0.565		
2002	0.569		
2003	0.549		
2004	0.587		
2005	0.597		
2006	0.555		
2007	0.685		
2008	0.898		
2009	0.923		
2010	1.687		
2011	2.953		
2012	4.847		
2013	6.040		
2014	8.862		
2015	10.226		
2016	11.123		
2017	13.406		
2018		15.053	
2019		17.959	
2020		20.682	
2021		23.270	
2022		28.260	
2025			99.139
2030			286.580
      
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Geothermal

Pre-development risks for geothermal power remain high and drilling costs have been increasing over the last decade, leading to higher investment costs in some countries. As a result, geothermal capacity is not growing fast enough to meet the SDS targets.

Read more about CSP, geothermal and ocean power
	Historical	Forecast	SDS Targets
2000	51.989		
2001	51.574		
2002	52.294		
2003	54.091		
2004	56.503		
2005	58.285		
2006	59.611		
2007	62.294		
2008	64.915		
2009	67.038		
2010	68.120		
2011	69.228		
2012	70.217		
2013	71.641		
2014	77.439		
2015	80.471		
2016	82.061		
2017	84.799		
2018		89.280	
2019		93.002	
2020		97.121	
2021		101.461	
2022		106.142	
2025			169.990
2030			291.680
      
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Ocean power

Ocean technology holds a great potential but requires additional policy support for faster cost reductions with the commissioning of larger commercial plants. It is currently not on track to meet the SDS goals.

Read more about CSP, geothermal and ocean power
	Historical	Forecast	SDS Targets
2000	0.546		
2001	0.524		
2002	0.533		
2003	0.530		
2004	0.508		
2005	0.516		
2006	0.491		
2007	0.495		
2008	0.487		
2009	0.486		
2010	0.513		
2011	0.512		
2012	0.497		
2013	0.925		
2014	0.999		
2015	1.007		
2016	1.025		
2017	0.925		
2018		1.079	
2019		1.116	
2020		1.161	
2021		1.196	
2022		1.218	
2025			4.785
2030			16.626
      
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Innovation

Innovation in renewable energy technologies has continued, especially for wind and solar power.

In 2017, several wind turbine manufacturers introduced low-speed onshore turbines with lower specific capacities (W/m2) that have larger rotor diameters, ranging from 130m to 160m. In addition, investment in digitalisation has emerged as an important trend for the wind industry. Digitalisation aims not only to optimise operation and maintenance, further reducing generation costs, but also to make turbines more system-friendly.

In 2017, the largest offshore wind turbine, with a rated capacity of 9.5 MW and a rotor diameter of 164m, started commercial operation in the United Kingdom. The average name-plate capacities of new turbines are expected to increase from over 4 MW in 2016 to over 8 MW in the next five years, reducing installation and maintenance costs thus resulting in lower generation costs.

Innovation in solar power is led by increases in the average efficiency of commercial PV modules. In 2016, this further improved, and now ranges from 16% to over 20% depending on the module type. This trend is expected to continue, as extensive research and development activities aim to harvest a broader range of the sun’s energy spectrum, e.g. through multi-layer cells.

Innovation in the design of concentrating solar power plants is expected to allow storage capabilities to increase. Projects with 10 or more hours of storage – mostly towers utilising molten salt storage – are expected to become the norm, leading to generation cost reductions of up to 50%.


The IEA’s new Innovation Tracking Framework identifies key long-term “technology innovation gaps” across the energy mix that need to be filled in order to meet long-term clean energy transition goals. Each innovation gap highlights where R&D investment and other efforts need improvement.

Explore the technology innovation gaps identified for renewables below:

Why is this RD&D challenge critical?

Continued module efficiency improvements needed to reach SDS targets.

Key RD&D focus areas over the next 5 years

Improved cleaning, passivated contacts, interconnection, embedding. New metallization pastes. Overall, a pressing need to identify a path to market to a number of innovation designs at the lab bench.

Key initiatives

  • Relatively well-funded R&D area but gap between this challenge and reaching beyond 24%. While well observed, there is a need to develop commercial designs and products.
  • Longi Solar/CPVT-verified 23% PERC cell and PV Celltech challenge.
  • PERC category in OECD statistics shows highest area of innovation within variable renewables.

Why is this RD&D challenge critical?

Penetration in SDS imposes pressure on PV industry to develop more sustainable processes. Cadmium, lead and chromium create high levels of toxic waste that needs to be mitigated, monitored, regulated and disposed of.

Key RD&D focus areas over the next 5 years

Process technology scale up needed overall. Increased regulatory pressure, including overall awareness and obligations could lead to innovation in this space.

Key initiatives

  • 45 million in R&D accounted for.
  • Few initiatives and products overall, few countries impose recycling or heavy metal use restrictions.
  • Toshiba, PV Techno Cycle (Japan) programme has a goal of recycling 80% of materials in panels.
  • Few countries impose recycling or heavy metal use restrictions. The European Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE) sets up rules and targets for EU member states but requires conversion into national law.

Why is this RD&D challenge critical?

Often-quoted limits to current generation which would need to be breached to reach SDS penetration.

Key RD&D focus areas over the next 5 years

Improved module optics, improved metallisation, POCL2 high-efficiency emitters, capturing long-wavelength photon energy. Need to develop further accelerators/incubators to facilitate testing and deployment of more exotic technologies in the pipeline if targets are to reach beyond current generation of crystalline PV.

Key initiatives

  • DoE initiatives reaching 40.7% in 2016, ARPA‐E MOSAIC program reaching 44.5% in 2017 from multi-junction gallium-antimonium cell.
  • US National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV) programmes on Low Cost III-V Solar Cells and Hybrid Tandem solar cells.
  • Longi Solar/CPVT-verified 23% PERC cell.

Why is this RD&D challenge critical?

Emissions required to create a thin-film cell and panel are lower than mono- or polycrystalline panels, and have reduced soft/labour costs, which in deep penetrations of PV in the SDS become a crucial barrier for further deployment. However current efficiencies are relatively too low to incentivise scale-up.

Key RD&D focus areas over the next 5 years

Overall efficiency improvements; low light device performance. Key technical parameters for focused R&D included surface passivation, buffer, and transparent contact layers.

Key initiatives

Solar Frontier, Sharp, SoloPower and First solar are leading manufacturers.

Why is this RD&D challenge critical?

As turbine costs drop in the SDS, interconnection and balance-of-system take up a higher share of overall installation costs. Learning on design concepts as well as fundamental technology improvements to power engineering equipment will be necessary.

Key RD&D focus areas over the next 5 years

DC infrastructure; high voltage interconnections, array interconnection, streamlined cable layouts.

Key initiatives

US DoE FOAs for offshore wind have components of grid integration innovation.

Why is this RD&D challenge critical?

Soft costs for offshore wind take up a substantial share of total installed costs, and together with interconnection they are a key challenge for reaching SDS cost goals.

Key RD&D focus areas over the next 5 years

Pre-commissioning of onshore wind turbines, concepts for integrating structure components.

Key initiatives

A number of simulation projects in place aside from commercial opportunities, including the Far and Large Offshore Wind Programme at ECN in the Netherlands. The European Wind Energy Technology Platform, as well as the Offshore Wind Cost Reduction Task Force both have initiatives in place to accelerate installation processes. The UK Offshore Wind Catapult is a leading example of tools to accelerate deployment.

Why is this RD&D challenge critical?

High throughput manufacturing and standardised designs of floating structures could lower costs in the mid- to long-term. Around a third of the long-term economic potential in the SDS is at depths higher than 50m.

Key RD&D focus areas over the next 5 years

Overall testing of floating designs. The variety of designs at the moment precludes recommendation of specific research areas.

Key initiatives

  • Floating Hywind wind farm in Scotland, 30 MW in place.
  • Macquarie/Ideol's first floating wind farm in Japan.
  • Floating wind foundations included in USD offshore wind R&D consortium (USD 18.5 million).
  • Glosten tension-leg platform and Principle Power semi-submersible concepts.

Why is this RD&D challenge critical?

Large rotor diameters and higher hub heights have higher upfront and per unit power costs but increase production and decrease costs per unit energy while making better use of the resource and decreasing variability of output.

Key RD&D focus areas over the next 5 years

Fundamental improvements to turbine blade design and manufacturing, as well as materials and construction.

Key initiatives

  • UK Offshore Renewable Energy Catapult provides a platform for testing, grid emulation and KTT.
  • GE's Haliade-X programme aims to develop 12 MW turbines by 2023.
  • US Wind Energy Technology Office/EERE allocating 18.5 million to overall cost reductions of offshore wind.

Why is this RD&D challenge critical?

Wind farm planning, both onshore and offshore, will require enhanced sensitivity assessment of the surrounding environment to ensure long term turbine efficiency and attractive return on investment.

Key RD&D focus areas over the next 5 years

  • Improve the accuracy of offshore pre-construction planning to accommodate seasonal and yearly variations/changes in the wind resource.
  • Refinement and validation of model outputs against measured data.

Why is this RD&D challenge critical?

Wind farms need to ensure their value to the system is maintained with the high penetration levels in the SDS.

Key RD&D focus areas over the next 5 years

Enhance short-term forecasts to facilitate the integration of higher volumes. Innovate big-data analytics from plant-level measurements, including neural network/AI controls. Component 3D printing and hybrid materials for wind towers potentially highly disruptive.

Key initiatives

  • Nearly 600m USD total funding globally for wind turbine technology improvements.
  • Initiatives on blade segmentation and turbine erection.

Why is this RD&D challenge critical?

Hydropower sees a two-fold growth in the SDS, but its potential is highly constrained by geography and robust planning.

Key RD&D focus areas over the next 5 years

Designing, testing, and validating new ways to improve sustainability and reduce the environmental effects of hydropower generation on fish populations and ecosystems.

Key initiatives

Future hydropower Program from Statkraft covers energy management, sustainability and pre engineering/engineering phases.

Why is this RD&D challenge critical?

In the SDS, hydropower will be increasingly called upon to provide flexibility to accommodate changes in both supply and demand.

Key RD&D focus areas over the next 5 years

Quantify the value of services that support the resilience of the electric grid.

Key initiatives

Canadian Emerging Hydropower Technology Strategy; Asset Management improvement at ORNL.

Why is this RD&D challenge critical?

Drilling costs account for between 40 and 70% of total capital costs of a geothermal power project. It is also a very time consuming part of the project.

Key RD&D focus areas over the next 5 years

Continued focus on specific technologies for different settings. Electro Impulse Technology (EIT), thermal shock drilling systems and Laser Jet drilling.

Key initiatives

  • Technical university Bergakademie Freiberg is carrying out leading research on EIT. Strong research in universities across Germany, and the University of Tokyo together with Tohuku University among other organizations.
  • Although geothermal has a significant global technical potential it receives a minimal amount of investment among clean technologies, with funding mainly provided by public research programmes.

Why is this RD&D challenge critical?

It is often not easy to locate and characterise geothermal resources, and this phase is both difficult and costly. The success rate (i.e. producing usable quantities of steam and/or hot water) for the first few drills can be around 60%.

Key RD&D focus areas over the next 5 years

Further development of electromagnetic or seismic imaging methods.

Why is this RD&D challenge critical?

A key driver of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) technology is to create permeability in a place where there is hot rock, meaning the number of possible locations (compared to hydrothermal processes) is far greater. Flow is directly related to the permeability in the reservoir.

Key RD&D focus areas over the next 5 years

Flow rate needs to be increased by at least a factor of three. There are two options: to either develop methods to enhance reservoir permeability or further develop techniques to create multi-horizon wells.

Key initiatives

    Low number of initiatives in this area. US potential assessments (USGS, NREL), and several country-wide technical potential assessments including EU-wide studies.

Why is this RD&D challenge critical?

Underwater conditions are complex and varying. Few prototype turbines have been tested in field hydrodynamic environments (i.e. outside the lab). Turbulence, wave activity, and depth variations result in unsteady blade loading causing fatigue. Research in mechanical fatigue is very much needed as this has caused a number of projects to fail. This includes interactions between the fluid and the structure of the turbine: blades, tower, foundation, wake formation, array interactions etc.

Key RD&D focus areas over the next 5 years

The effects of turbulence on blades must be further investigated to be able and develop commercially viable turbines. Technically speaking, this means improved characterisation of hydrodynamic blade loads and materials research.

Key initiatives

Edinburgh, Strathclyde, Manchester and Oxford universities are all carrying leading projects. Technologies currently with the largest commercial deployment are OpenHydro, Andritz Hammerfest / Atlantis Resources, Nova Innovation, Tocardo. Other commercial sources include EDF; classification societies such as DNV GL; or test facilities like EMEC.

Why is this RD&D challenge critical?

Power take off (PTO) is a fundamental part of the energy converter, it is here the absorbed energy from the initial converter is transformed to electricity, with a resulting impact on the efficiency of the device and the design of the wave energy converter. The PTO covers a significant part of the Wave Energy Converter's (WEC) capital cost and is also the most complex part, often the first point of failure. Increasing its reliability would have an impact on operational costs and consequently on the levelised cost of electricity from wave power.

Key RD&D focus areas over the next 5 years

Due to the relatively low level of maturity of wave energy a range of different areas need to be in focus to find the optimal solution. Projects should look at efficiency, design such as flexibility and robustness, different combinations of initial converter and PTO. Some projects are currently taking inspiration from wind energy technologies and also technologies used in the automotive sector.

Key initiatives

Wave Energy Scotland (WES) is currently funding five different projects. The Australian company Carnegie Clean Energy is carrying out several R&D projects. Australia Research Council (ARC) project awarded to BioPower systems.

Why is this RD&D challenge critical?

Advanced control systems for wave energy converters and sub-systems is essential for the development of economically feasible technology as it is essential to improve performance, affordability, survivability and reliability.

Key RD&D focus areas over the next 5 years

General deployment and tracking of the full range of control systems and algorithms.

Key initiatives

Wave Energy Scotland currently funding 13 projects from different universities and companies.

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