Industry

Tracking Clean Energy Progress

🕐 Last updated Tuesday, 10 July 2018

What's changed?

More efforts needed

According to a preliminary estimate, direct industrial CO2 emissions grew by 1.3% a year between 2010 and 2016 to reach 8.3 GtCO2, or 24% of global emissions. The rate of growth in emissions has slowed in recent years. Emissions rose by 0.3% from 2015 to 2016, a slight rebound from the 0.5% decline between 2014 and 2015.


CO2 emissions from direct industrial energy use

Direct CO2 emissions from industry increased in 2016, reaching 24% of global emissions.

	Direct CO2 emissions
2010	7.72
2011	8.17
2012	8.12
2013	8.25
2014	8.35
2015	8.31
2016	8.33
2025	8.51
2030	8.18
            
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Note: Direct industrial CO2 emissions include energy-related and process emissions. Process emissions include those generated in the production of primary aluminium, ferroalloys, clinker and fuels through coal and gas to liquids routes; in the production and use of lime and soda ash, as well as in the use of lubricants and paraffins.

Since 2000, the global direct CO2 intensity of industrial energy use has increased by an average of 0.4% annually. According to a preliminary estimate, direct industrial CO2 emissions grew by 1.3% a year between 2010 and 2016 to reach 8.3 GtCO2, or 24% of global emissions. The rate of growth in emissions has slowed in recent years. Emissions rose by 0.3% from 2015 to 2016, a slight rebound from the 0.5% decline between 2014 and 2015.

Decoupling of industrial activity from CO2 emission is critical to meet SDS targets, which envision a peak in emissions prior to 2025 and decline to approximately 8.2 GtCO2 by 2030 despite expected industrial production growth.

The global average direct CO2 emissions intensity of industrial energy use would need to fall annually by 0.8% from 2016 to 2030, requiring in particular a shift away from coal towards natural gas, bioenergy and electricity.


Total final industrial energy consumption by fuel

Energy consumption by industry grew 1.3% each year on average between 2010 and 2016.

	Total	Other Renewables	Bioenergy	Heat	Electricity	Gas	Oil	Coal
2010	143.32	0.02	7.7	5.1	26.6	26	31.1	46.8
2011	149.12	0.02	7.8	5.4	28.2	27.6	30.4	49.7
2012	149.43	0.03	7.8	5.5	28.8	28.2	29.4	49.7
2013	151.33	0.03	8.1	5.2	29.6	28.4	29.6	50.4
2014	153.03	0.03	8	5.2	30.4	28.6	29.9	50.9
2015	152.73	0.03	8.1	5.2	30.6	28.1	30.5	50.2
2016	154.63	0.03	8.2	5.3	31.3	28.7	31.5	49.6
2020	164.2	0.1	9	5.8	33.7	32.2	33.8	49.6
2025	171.04	0.34	10.3	5.8	36	35	35.4	48.2
2030	174.79	0.79	11.6	5.5	37.3	37.1	36.3	46.2
            
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Note: Final energy consumption includes process energy used in manufacturing industries (including blast furnaces and coke ovens) and feedstock.

The industrial sector accounted for 38% of global total final energy use in 2016, or 155 EJ. This represents a 1.3% annual increase in energy consumption since 2010, with 1.2% growth from 2015 to 2016.

Growth in energy consumption has been driven largely by a continuing long-term trend of production growth in energy-intensive industrial sectors. The highest annual growth in energy consumption in industrial sectors between 2010 and 2016 occurred in India (4.7%), South Korea (2.7%), China (2.6%) and the Middle East (2.5%), with China accounting for 67% of the total net increase. Meanwhile, industrial energy use declined slightly in Europe and the Americas.

The energy mix in industry has remained essentially the same since 2010. While solar thermal and geothermal final energy use in the industrial sector grew the fastest from 2010 to 2016, at 7.8% annually, they accounted for less than 0.05% of total final industrial energy use in 2016. Fossil fuels’ contribution to the energy mix decreased from 73% to 71%, while electricity’s rose from 19% to 20%.

The growth in energy use needs to be limited to 0.9% per year to achieve the SDS objectives by 2030, despite expected growth in production.


Electricity consumption of electric motor systems by efficiency standard level

Electricity consumption from more-efficient motors needs to rise to over 85% to meet SDS goals.

	IE4+	IE3	IE2	IE1	No standard
            2000	0.0	0.0	38.5	410.7	2921.5
            2001	0.0	0.0	41.9	478.6	2891.4
            2002	0.0	0.0	48.5	581.0	2882.5
            2003	0.0	0.0	55.4	725.5	2912.0
            2004	0.0	0.0	65.9	928.8	2940.1
            2005	0.0	0.0	77.2	1122.0	2927.0
            2006	0.0	0.0	88.2	1358.4	2946.9
            2007	0.0	0.0	100.1	1675.0	2903.3
            2008	0.0	0.1	114.4	1869.8	2816.3
            2009	0.0	-0.7	125.8	1913.6	2683.5
            2010	0.0	3.6	284.1	2197.8	2620.8
            2011	0.0	12.1	528.8	2306.3	2538.4
            2012	0.0	20.5	723.3	2391.1	2445.9
            2013	0.0	40.5	948.6	2466.2	2345.3
            2014	0.0	99.0	1169.2	2521.8	2234.4
            2015	0.0	249.4	1293.1	2560.1	2111.4
            2016	0.1	448.5	1339.2	2595.9	1980.0
            2020	0.1	1438.2	1465.5	2388.5	1541.6
            2025	494.9	2604.9	1910.1	1632.4	715.4
            2030	2100.0	3147.8	1527.3	831.4	249.4
            
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Under the IEC 60034-30-1 standard for induction motors, there are five International Efficiency (IE) classes as follows: IE 1 = standard efficiency, IE2 = high efficiency, IE3 = premium efficiency, IE4 = super premium efficiency, IE5 = ultra premium efficiency (United Nations Environment Programme, 2017).

Improving energy efficiency and shifting towards best available technologies can help reduce energy demand.The uptake of energy-efficient motors has increased in recent years, with motors of efficiency IE2 and higher accounting for about 30% of industrial electricity consumption in 2016. By 2030, however, this proportion will need to rise to over 85% to meet SDS goals.


Industrial productivity by region

Global industrial productivity has increased, but this trend needs to accelerate to achieve SDS targets.

	Europe	North America	Other Asia Pacific	Africa	Central & South America	Global	Middle East	China	India	Eurasia
            2000	187	166	132	142	128	130	165	60	45	36
            2001	191	172	130	141	126	130	155	62	47	38
            2002	192	181	129	135	121	131	150	64	48	40
            2003	191	185	130	142	121	130	166	62	52	43
            2004	194	185	131	148	127	128	172	56	54	47
            2005	199	197	134	147	129	128	165	54	56	50
            2006	209	198	134	150	131	129	159	55	57	54
            2007	213	204	136	151	137	129	143	57	60	56
            2008	221	204	142	153	137	130	137	60	57	57
            2009	230	210	136	148	137	126	127	61	57	54
            2010	224	201	142	153	132	124	116	64	57	50
            2011	230	200	144	139	137	124	115	66	57	51
            2012	229	214	146	154	140	127	115	70	59	51
            2013	231	222	148	148	142	129	117	73	58	54
            2014	239	229	151	152	144	131	116	77	58	54
            2015	250	235	154	152	146	135	116	82	61	51
            2016	252	235	156	152	148	137	118	85	63	51
            2020	271	235	166	158	151	145	117	100	69	52
            2025	299	252	181	175	163	161	124	126	80	56
            2030	332	277	201	194	182	181	135	154	94	63
                
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Note: Industrial productivity is defined as industrial value-added per unit of energy used. Value-added is calculated using market exchange rate values.

Industrial productivity has increased in most regions since 2000 because of improvements in energy efficiency, deployment of state-of-the-art technology and structural change from energy-intensive industry to higher value-added sectors.

Historically the largest improvements in energy productivity can be found in developed countries which tend to focus on higher value industrial products, while countries undergoing more recent industrialisation have shown relatively little progress.

In the Middle East industrial productivity has declined, probably because of strong development in energy-intensive manufacturing sectors between 2004 and 2010, which offset deployment of best available technologies in several growing industrial sectors, particularly the cement sector.

China, which witnessed little change or even a worsening of industrial productivity between 2000 to 2006, has since shown improvements as it has started to diversify its industrial activity away from energy-intensive steel and cement production towards high-valued industries such as machinery and chemicals.

Nonetheless, this sector is off track. Industrial productivity would need to increase by 2.0% per year from 2016 to 2030 to meet the SDS goals, an acceleration from the 1.6% rate of growth since 2010.


Mandatory policy coverage of industrial energy use by region

In most regions mandatory energy efficiency policies covered less than 25% of industrial energy use in 2017.

While the number of industrial energy efficiency policies continues to increase, in most regions mandatory policy-driven energy efficiency targets and standards covered less than 25% of total industrial energy use in 2016.

China and India, however, both put in place mandatory targets for energy savings in industrial sectors via the Top 10 000 Programme in China, a component of its 12th Five Year Plan (2011-2015), and the Perform, Achieve, Trade Scheme in India, which began in 2012.

Increasing the coverage of mandatory policies to a larger portion of industrial energy use, and ensuring ambitious stringencies for new and existing policies, will be important for achieving SDS objectives.

To achieve sufficient emissions reductions, policies need to cover not only energy efficiency and process optimisation, but also other factors that influence industrial emissions, such as process emissions or technological shifts. Policies targeting overall CO2 emissions reductions (for example, multi-sector or economy-wide emission trading systems) would also play an important role.

China, for example, recently launched its Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) in December 2017. The initial phase will cover only the power sector, rather than several industrial sub-sectors as was originally planned, apparently due to difficulties in collecting robust industrial statistics. Improving data collection and including industrial sectors in the scheme would help to achieve emissions reduction objectives.


Number of ISO 50001 energy management system certifications

ISO 50001 certifications reached about 20 000 sites in 2016.

	CEM Energy Management Campaign Target	Other Asia Pacific	India	China	Eurasia	Middle East	Africa	Central & South America	North America	Europe
            2011		38	25	12	1	8	0	11	1	363
            2012		134	74	58	9	18	13	10	9	1911
            2013		330	172	150	45	62	36	34	34	3961
            2014		438	271	261	104	89	18	63	77	5444
            2015		477	405	565	165	130	40	92	77	10034
            2016		722	570	1375	260	153	58	81	73	16924
            2020	50001
            
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Voluntary energy efficiency policies also exist in many regions. ISO 50001 certification for industrial energy management systems for instance reached around 20 000 sites certified in total in 20161. A continuation of these certification trends would put the world on track to achieve the Clean Energy Ministerial Energy Management Campaign’s target of 50001 industrial operations certified under ISO 50001 by 2020.

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Other energy management system standards may have higher uptake in specific regions. From 2016 to 2017, the number of certifications under China’s GB/T 23331 standard increased by 25%, from 2 036 to 2 552. Improved data on these various standards would be useful to better analyse their impact, including data on resulting energy and emissions reductions.

1. Note that ISO estimates the number of certifications using a voluntary survey of certification bodies, thus this estimate should be regarded as conservative.


Are industry technologies on track?

To achieve the SDS objectives, global direct industrial emissions would need to peak before 2025 and decline to approximately 8.2 GtCO2 by 2030, despite the expectation that industrial sector value-added will grow by 2.9% annually until 2030. The sector needs improvement to achieve these objectives.


Chemicals and petrochemicals

The sector’s process energy consumption grew at an annual rate of 2% and its direct energy-related CO2 emissions grew at 2.5% between 2000 and 2016. The increase in CO2 intensity of process energy has been mainly driven by shifts towards heavier feedstocks in some regions. Global energy-related CO2 emissions need to grow by less than 1.3% annually to meet SDS.

Read more about chemicals and petrochemicals
	Coal	Imported Heat	Electricity	Gas	Oil	Bioenergy
2000	1	1	1	1	1	1
2001	1.04	0.99	1.01	0.94	0.99	0.93
2002	1.08	1.04	0.87	0.79	0.98	0.67
2003	1.15	1.13	0.91	0.80	0.99	0.75
2004	1.54	1.16	0.96	0.83	1.02	0.64
2005	1.74	1.22	0.99	0.85	0.97	0.61
2006	1.81	1.33	1.02	0.83	1.00	0.67
2007	2.01	1.41	1.08	0.91	1.00	0.69
2008	2.08	1.32	1.05	0.92	0.95	0.49
2009	2.04	1.25	1.02	0.93	0.89	0.45
2010	2.13	1.46	1.09	1.15	1.11	0.55
2011	2.39	1.54	1.13	1.24	1.07	0.52
2012	2.30	1.59	1.17	1.25	0.97	0.44
2013	2.30	1.54	1.20	1.27	0.99	0.53
2014	2.24	1.58	1.23	1.32	0.97	0.55
2015	2.46	1.64	1.25	1.28	0.99	0.70
2016	2.34	1.69	1.28	1.30	1.02	0.75
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Iron and steel

In 2016, the energy intensity of crude steel fell by 1%, compared to an average 0.4% annual decline from 2010 to 2016. Between 2016 and 2030, the energy intensity of crude steel needs to decline by 1.2% annually to reach the SDS target. This per-tonne decrease is especially important as global steel production continued to grow by 0.5% in 2016 and initial estimates indicate stronger growth in 2017.

Read more about iron and steel
	Energy Intensity	Bioenergy	Imported Heat	Electricity	Gas	Oil	Coal
2000	21.76	0.35	0.41	2.26	2.20	0.87	12.39
2001	21.32	0.32	0.41	2.25	2.11	0.80	12.26
2002	20.31	0.34	0.40	2.29	2.09	0.76	12.48
2003	20.72	0.40	0.40	2.45	2.19	0.78	13.91
2004	20.67	0.47	0.37	2.77	2.57	0.77	15.02
2005	20.56	0.47	0.50	2.87	2.56	0.75	16.46
2006	20.07	0.45	0.53	3.11	2.51	0.72	17.78
2007	19.97	0.47	0.62	3.38	2.56	0.69	19.18
2008	20.29	0.47	0.60	3.39	2.68	0.67	19.46
2009	22.02	0.29	0.63	3.21	2.24	0.54	20.39
2010	21.25	0.35	0.69	3.68	2.64	0.59	22.53
2011	21.09	0.35	0.74	4.00	2.67	0.56	24.13
2012	21.37	0.34	0.76	3.97	2.68	0.50	25.11
2013	20.63	0.32	0.67	4.15	2.89	0.45	25.57
2014	20.75	0.31	0.62	4.25	2.91	0.43	26.15
2015	20.99	0.30	0.61	4.02	2.80	0.38	25.93
2016	20.77	0.28	0.62	4.10	2.85	0.38	25.60
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Cement

From 2014 to 2016, the direct CO2 intensity of cement showed little change, as thermal energy efficiency improvements were offset by a slight increase in the global clinker-to-cement ratio. To meet the IEA SDS objectives, the direct CO2 intensity of cement needs to decline by 0.3% annually through to 2030, even as cement production is expected to grow.

Read more about cement
	Direct CO2 intensity
2014	0.536
2016 - estimate	0.538
2030 SDS Target	0.516
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Pulp and paper

Final energy use in pulp and paper making fell by 0.05% a year globally between 2000 and 2016 while paper and paperboard output increased at an annual rate of 1.4%. To meet SDS objectives, energy use in the sector needs to decline by 0.3% annually by 2030 globally for an expected increase in paper and paperboard production of 1.0% annually.

Read more about pulp and paper
	Other Renewables	Bioenergy	Imported Heat	Electricity	Gas	Oil	Coal
2000	0.0057	1.53	0.11	1.94	1.37	0.77	0.86
2001	0.0057	1.35	0.11	1.95	1.26	0.75	0.89
2002	0.0056	1.35	0.13	1.70	1.26	0.70	0.97
2003	0.0056	1.42	0.15	1.75	1.18	0.76	1.00
2004	0.0058	1.52	0.19	1.82	1.12	0.77	1.15
2005	0.0059	1.57	0.27	1.88	1.04	0.79	1.24
2006	0.0056	1.71	0.30	1.94	1.00	0.73	1.27
2007	0.0058	1.73	0.33	1.96	1.01	0.64	1.30
2008	0.0058	1.66	0.33	1.90	0.96	0.57	1.35
2009	0.0060	1.58	0.30	1.77	0.93	0.46	1.43
2010	0.0057	1.76	0.34	1.83	1.04	0.48	1.47
2011	0.0051	1.76	0.36	1.82	1.01	0.46	1.44
2012	0.0049	1.73	0.37	1.81	1.02	0.38	1.29
2013	0.0042	1.80	0.37	1.80	1.07	0.34	1.19
2014	0.0041	1.85	0.39	1.70	1.07	0.34	1.02
2015	0.0041	1.89	0.40	1.85	1.12	0.30	0.91
2016	0.0039	1.89	0.41	1.87	1.14	0.31	0.91
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Aluminium

The energy intensity of aluminium production declined by 1.7% in 2016, compared to a 1.9% annual reduction from 2010 to 2016. As almost half of global production, based in China, already reached best-performing levels for primary production in 2014, a more moderated annual decline of 1.2% is needed to meet the SDS objectives by 2030. However, the global proportion of aluminium production from recycled new and old scrap needs to increase considerably to 46%.

Read more about aluminium
	North America	China	GCC
2000	15772	15479	
2001	15201	15470	
2002	15224	15362	
2003	15529	15026	
2004	15613	14794	
2005	15552	14574	
2006	15563	14697	
2007	15421	14441	
2008	15498	14283	
2009	15006	14171	14760
2010	15120	13979	14758
2011	15409	13913	14654
2012	15458	13844	14480
2013	15584	13740	14817
2014	14870	13596	14889
2015	15130	13562	14497
2016	15613	13599	14868
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CCUS in industry

In 2017, one additional industrial project linked to bioenergy came into operation (in the U.S.), bringing the total number of global CCUS projects in industry and fuel transformation to 15. Only one large industrial CCUS project has received a final investment decision since 2014, an additional signal that industrial CCUS remains woefully off-track for the SDS target. CCUS is one of the few existing technology options that can significantly reduce more stubborn CO2 emissions from industry.

Read more about CCUS in industry
	SDS Target	Existing and planned capacity
2000		12.85
2010		21.95
2015		26.9
2017		28.7
2025		36.3
2030	500	
2040	1600	
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Innovation

Two main approaches are being pursued to develop innovative low-carbon industrial processes: the direct avoidance of CO2 emissions by relying on renewable electricity (directly or through electrolytic hydrogen), bioenergy or alternative raw materials; and reduction of CO2 emissions by minimising process energy, using fossil fuels but integrating CCUS. Finding value-enhancing uses for industrial by-products is another area of innovation, as synergies are sought between different industrial activities, including through CCUS.

In 2015, the European Union adopted a proposal to create an Innovation Fund under the EU Emissions Trading System for the period 2021-30, which will support large-scale demonstration of key emissions reduction technologies in energy-intensive industry, CCUS, and renewable energy.

Three out of the seven Innovation Challenges, launched in 2016 under Mission Innovation, are relevant to the industrial sector: carbon capture, sustainable biofuels and clean energy materials.

Using a combination of private and public funds, several innovation streams in Europe aim to reach commercial-scale demonstration between 2022 and 2035 of low-carbon steel-making processes ranging from direct carbon avoidance strategies to carbon capture.

In China, industry, government and academia joined forces in 2016 to explore the technical and economic feasibility of integrating carbon capture in steel production. In the same year, the world’s first fully commercial carbon capture project was commissioned in the United Arab Emirates, on a direct reduced iron plant.

The cement industry has recently announced plans to invest in demonstrating oxy-fuel capture technologies in two commercial-scale cement kilns in Europe, and is seeking public funds for the project.


Updates to this page

  • 10 July, 2018: Updated mandatory policy coverage map with 2017 data.