Key World Energy Statistics

Key statistics on the supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources

Key World Energy Statistics (KWES) is the IEA's introduction to energy data and statistics, including energy indicators, energy balances, prices, RDD budgets, CO2 emissions and forecasts. Explore the highlights below or download KWES as a PDF.


Oil refining

Transformation processes play a vital role in the flow of energy throughout an economy, as they ensure that primary energy products that cannot be directly or effectively used are changed into other energy products more suitable for consumption. For example, refineries transform crude oil, non-conventional oils or gases into finished oil products, which include gasoline, diesel, LPG, or jet fuel.


World refinery output by product, Mt

	LPG/ethane/naphtha	Motor gasoline    	Aviation fuels    	Middle distillates	Fuel oil          	Other products    
1971	126.57	507.23	103.15	603.92	802.52	222.13
1972	141.37	541.64	108.45	642.03	829.14	234.33
1973	157.18	571.94	113.56	708.06	917.98	250.76
1974	158.25	566.87	109.6	688.56	917.02	249.93
1975	139.44	576.65	109.16	675.73	882.49	232.36
1976	164.82	608.97	112.41	732.96	932.36	243.74
1977	166.03	627.12	119.26	777.67	969.83	263.58
1978	153.15	645	121.46	790.49	970.56	289.9
1979	162.49	646.63	129.74	833.47	990.89	301.48
1980	155.95	633.46	131.64	795.03	951.66	291.71
1981	149.81	625.48	129.03	763.78	873.42	281.6
1982	148.34	626.33	130.07	758.35	812.53	273.16
1983	157.79	632	134.76	760.51	765.54	280.81
1984	161.06	643.52	142.06	792.65	761.29	286.66
1985	161.73	639.96	145.39	798.01	720.08	294.5
1986	166.96	667.49	156.73	828.14	724.72	316.12
1987	175.15	688.67	163.98	836.47	731.38	324.36
1988	184.38	708.3	170.56	871.49	739.13	344.42
1989	189.29	721.77	175.89	888.36	744.82	351.28
1990	191.96	726.68	182.93	891.86	722.9	336.04
1991	190.92	726.01	175.02	900.9	717.77	357.87
1992	199.39	739.41	173.53	914.48	701.76	344.39
1993	202.9	754.82	175.76	941.5	682.1	344.17
1994	216.39	750.91	183.17	960.18	656.96	357.54
1995	232.63	771.84	188.51	968.56	642.89	356.41
1996	243.85	794.44	199.94	1025.18	643.29	362.07
1997	264.48	810.31	206.47	1063.76	646.92	379.13
1998	262.67	822.98	207.39	1062.59	644.3	393.82
1999	273.61	820.99	213.46	1075.66	619.19	394.27
2000	285.18	824.64	221.24	1109.64	618.24	411.23
2001	288.23	837.69	215.27	1128.61	610.76	413.99
2002	295.33	849.74	216.44	1126.96	593.94	425.56
2003	310.04	859.2	216.57	1167.44	597.9	440.91
2004	323.82	881.6	229.75	1213.6	607.17	470.73
2005	322.86	886.12	237.51	1245.54	603.07	470.2
2006	330.69	881.86	239.7	1253.6	597.87	494.16
2007	337.66	888.18	245.4	1267.84	583.69	494.55
2008	337.03	889.53	248.99	1310.21	575.6	488.46
2009	341.35	884.26	241.21	1278.81	531.63	476.88
2010	355.25	891.86	249.91	1295.13	529.98	530.22
2011	341.07	884.88	257.24	1324.95	512.91	522.61
2012	345.74	902.9	260.68	1353.26	500.33	528.15
2013	353.03	913.83	269.72	1361.21	480.23	524.1
2014	363.14	939.61	276.64	1379.89	467.45	519.41
2015	374.28	971.22	292.02	1410.03	453.93	534.1
2016	391.62	997.35	300.14	1388.08	442.12	547.9
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Producers, net exporters and net importers of oil products


Notes: the discrepancy between total net exports and total net imports arises from different data sources and possible misallocation of bunkers into exports for some countries.

World refinery intake by region, Mt

	OECD                       	Middle East                	Non-OECD Europe and Eurasia	China                      	Non-OECD Asia	Non-OECD Americas          	Africa                     
1971	1593.046	98.013	327.725	32.5	76.979	216.356	37.648
1972	1687.695	98.754	352.573	36.7	84.353	215.842	40.642
1973	1833.526	102.047	379.593	42	91.433	242.331	48.114
1974	1779.256	102.395	406.618	49.5	90.7	232.652	48.093
1975	1733.798	99.877	420.79	52.5	89.857	196.663	50.899
1976	1852.251	108.935	441.452	59	99.81	209.743	51.374
1977	1932.526	115.178	458.118	63	112.294	215.641	53.328
1978	1950.93	114.306	487.177	67.2	118.027	216.581	57.236
1979	2001.583	122.906	499.027	70	123.469	217.86	62.05
1980	1866.729	117.921	511.949	78.69	127.771	218.833	71.62
1981	1735.058	113.201	510.472	74.76	135.272	206.379	76.877
1982	1638.64	126.583	511.221	75.33	135.218	202.882	84.111
1983	1609.17	145.031	514.117	80.41	138.221	195.902	82.235
1984	1650.039	156.989	509.882	82.51	143.247	193.67	87.329
1985	1618.749	170.974	506.5	85.889	146.791	179.361	91.478
1986	1689.426	176.204	511.016	92.599	159.259	181.788	92.471
1987	1696.894	192.119	527.29	97.75	168.649	180.86	98.027
1988	1756.986	210.818	529.495	102.394	173.977	191.317	103.622
1989	1792.416	225.066	523.382	106.624	183.448	189.274	104.03
1990	1807.615	195.818	512.8	109.612	196.311	192.971	106.545
1991	1830.589	189.404	479.483	116.394	203.085	192.469	108.104
1992	1883.768	215.702	387.647	125.412	213.617	198.533	107.839
1993	1924.522	225.326	339.081	131.004	226.11	200.906	107.698
1994	1958.493	253.12	289.234	132.837	239.026	207.08	106.21
1995	1968.292	256.172	280.764	143.534	253.742	206.021	111.61
1996	2022.656	268.074	268.765	151.339	277.09	217.313	115.882
1997	2082.27	271.986	266.807	166.073	285.416	224.67	122.27
1998	2111.884	276.43	258.02	165.818	281.955	236.352	110.497
1999	2080.898	282.47	252.536	181.526	298.396	240.446	114.818
2000	2099.596	280.723	262.459	203.053	321.753	245.699	108.142
2001	2084.358	273.578	278.952	204.748	328.646	248.89	124.056
2002	2071.103	283.447	295.896	217.302	335.989	236.249	123.894
2003	2103.669	292.476	305.022	241.027	363.549	228.213	116.3
2004	2131.923	300.894	311.345	279.973	387.525	251.189	117.627
2005	2130.933	310.816	324.584	290.405	391.549	247.708	128.971
2006	2126.383	313.78	333.298	310.46	404.938	254.031	117.236
2007	2120.529	305.551	334.002	328.326	415.417	250.046	118.167
2008	2093.734	323.569	344.229	345.124	419.676	261.372	121.257
2009	1982.978	316.683	341.567	371.094	440.722	257.685	121.761
2010	1987.857	330.265	347.236	419.137	455.752	244.054	122.226
2011	1977.712	329.789	357.931	432.925	467.302	258.071	111.059
2012	1972.11	339.481	366.387	459.826	491.805	254.384	109.116
2013	1956.46	335.754	370.606	478.729	492.768	252.502	111.992
2014	1963.532	342.436	386.207	506.265	489.212	253.978	111.971
2015	2011.411	363.213	377.251	533.206	503.227	239.546	104.235
2016	2005.51	379.381	377.562	555.118	526.53	226.639	105.044
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Notes: includes crude oil, NGL, refinery feedstocks, additives and other hydrocarbons; non-OECD Asia excludes China.

Refinery capacity, net exporters and net importers of oil


Notes: includes crude oil and oil products.

Electricity production

Transformation also includes the production of electricity through the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal or natural gas, or from sources of primary renewable energy such as hydro.


World electricity production by fuel, TWh

	Fossil thermal	Nuclear	Hydro 	Other renewables
1971	3905.386	111.087	1204.602	35.972
1972	4241.903	152.475	1267.38	36.848
1973	4606.272	203.196	1282.642	39.033
1974	4552.563	272.711	1422.016	40.209
1975	4645.743	383.613	1445.144	44.174
1976	5059.28	440.598	1433.294	47.532
1977	5238.904	536.942	1481.174	48.763
1978	5416.688	625.992	1601.021	49.426
1979	5636.866	648.753	1685.49	52.929
1980	5794.756	713.375	1716.86	58.494
1981	5793.003	842.31	1757.887	60.8
1982	5762.845	909.968	1798.342	69.098
1983	5913.598	1035.129	1878.705	72.164
1984	6125.138	1255.344	1941.906	76.754
1985	6247.226	1492.098	1973.18	80.207
1986	6395.047	1601.331	2008.433	84.816
1987	6719.499	1737.805	2014.623	87.448
1988	6957.778	1891.249	2083.764	90.916
1989	7401.94	1939.089	2071.909	153.638
1990	7503.569	2012.902	2143.692	191.451
1991	7637.769	2105.786	2210.507	166.047
1992	7714.768	2123.688	2209.538	184.012
1993	7808.53	2190.502	2338.858	183.919
1994	8032.271	2242.299	2359.099	194.993
1995	8249.87	2331.951	2478.836	203.589
1996	8548.264	2417.193	2511.447	210.778
1997	8822.033	2393.101	2541.617	221.802
1998	9107.751	2445.21	2554.348	229.234
1999	9406.45	2531.148	2561.945	247.495
2000	9959.899	2590.623	2618.269	271.946
2001	10077.477	2637.685	2561.158	284.041
2002	10565.854	2660.778	2628.835	314.078
2003	11149.361	2635.349	2641.584	337.109
2004	11605.452	2738.012	2812.152	378.71
2005	12167.203	2767.952	2934.786	426.991
2006	12701.183	2791.471	3044.652	471.187
2007	13502.991	2719.229	3083.311	531.943
2008	13669.59	2733.085	3213.238	606.264
2009	13483.12	2696.18	3267.501	697.727
2010	14444	2756.288	3445.351	838.757
2011	15095.161	2582.64	3514.052	989.729
2012	15399.926	2460.285	3677.874	1146.61
2013	15735.053	2479.106	3809.087	1350.751
2014	15875.035	2535.647	3905.968	1520.242
2015	16076.153	2570.17	3904.719	1733.161
2016	16319.588	2605.985	4061.468	1985.98
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Notes: excludes electricity generation from pumped storage; other renewables includes geothermal, solar, wind, tide/wave/ocean, biofuels, waste, heat and other; peat and oil shale are aggregated with coal.

Producers of electricity by source

CoalTWh
China 4 242
United States 1 354
India 1 105
Japan 349
Germany 273
Korea 235
South Africa 226
Russia 171
Australia 163
Indonesia 135
Rest of the world 1 341
World 9 594
2016 data
OilTWh
Saudi Arabia 140
Japan 84
Iraq 56
Kuwait 45
Egypt 38
Pakistan 37
United States 35
Mexico 34
India 23
Argentina 21
Rest of the world 418
World 931
2016 data
Natural gasTWh
United States 1 418
Russia 522
Japan 406
Iran 233
Saudi Arabia 205
Mexico 192
China 170
United Kingdom 143
Egypt 140
United Arab Emirates 128
Rest of the world 2 237
World 5 794
2016 data
RenewablesTWh
China 1 540
United States 637
Brazil 465
Canada 434
India 239
Germany 188
Russia 186
Japan 155
Norway 145
Italy 108
Rest of the world 1 842
World 5 939
2016 data

Notes: peat and oil shale are aggregated with coal; excludes electricity generation from pumped storage.

World electricity production by region, TWh

	OECD                       	Middle East                	Non-OECD Europe and Eurasia	China                      	Non-OECD Asia	Non-OECD Americas          	Africa                     
1971	3836.893	19.73	892.621	144.636	135.318	136.369	91.48
1972	4158.965	23.044	958.927	159.839	147.236	148.959	101.636
1973	4471.524	27.634	1021.343	175.488	160.154	164.439	110.561
1974	4521.755	31.99	1090.105	177.272	167.932	177.179	121.266
1975	4610.998	36.562	1161.327	205.643	185.129	187.236	131.779
1976	4925.719	43.127	1244.766	214.69	203.904	206.352	142.146
1977	5134.496	49.726	1292.451	235.734	216.165	227.528	149.683
1978	5370.444	58.244	1353.426	266.922	240.276	247.908	155.907
1979	5560.638	73.355	1395.424	293.327	255.161	275.884	170.249
1980	5668.226	82.723	1461.367	313.264	272.969	300.976	183.96
1981	5733.591	95.035	1499.166	322.562	290.378	308.251	205.017
1982	5692.161	114.201	1544.27	342.168	308.818	323.501	215.134
1983	5899.48	127.477	1603.216	367.907	335.842	344.499	221.175
1984	6187.637	147.153	1687.075	395.308	370.508	371.03	240.431
1985	6417.383	160.405	1737.565	429.92	397.929	392.81	256.699
1986	6519.635	172.04	1801.658	470.936	434.248	423.163	267.947
1987	6778.914	188.424	1870.152	521.016	476.885	444.687	279.297
1988	7052.438	200.988	1915.729	570.711	526.195	464.273	293.373
1989	7450.399	212.063	1932.782	612.171	578.048	475.888	305.225
1990	7660.839	223.587	1887.659	650.206	624.273	488.978	316.072
1991	7835.852	224.622	1837.165	709.432	678.244	510.572	324.222
1992	7910.208	254.789	1702.391	788.978	724.422	523.976	327.242
1993	8094.42	282.847	1600.211	874.349	776.407	554.482	339.093
1994	8324.439	301.371	1470.142	954.988	845.632	581.083	351.007
1995	8568.773	315.339	1446.743	1035.83	922.521	612.039	363.001
1996	8809.104	333.502	1426.924	1108.682	983.934	642.042	383.494
1997	8934.213	354.746	1396.478	1164.833	1049.588	678.598	400.097
1998	9156.275	383.211	1379.431	1198.917	1106.474	706.27	405.965
1999	9359.667	405.497	1388.854	1269.425	1176.045	729.431	418.119
2000	9742.212	429.545	1428.227	1387.069	1249.087	763.053	441.544
2001	9625.544	455.913	1458.072	1513.381	1302.363	746.125	458.963
2002	9903.115	488.002	1464.444	1688.478	1366.402	771.406	487.698
2003	10017.624	517.131	1513.579	1946.264	1453.72	807.039	508.046
2004	10267.685	551.4	1548.062	2240.634	1538.397	849.075	539.073
2005	10521.242	597.172	1578.729	2538.917	1615.224	885.472	560.176
2006	10600.09	639.427	1640.426	2904.571	1718.71	919.751	585.518
2007	10795.128	678.111	1658.832	3320.742	1809.724	963.333	611.604
2008	10814.941	728.836	1693.613	3505.179	1853.168	1005.548	620.892
2009	10421.623	763.355	1614.02	3753.793	1954.736	1010.836	626.165
2010	10886.878	833.137	1693.422	4235.591	2094.863	1068.881	671.624
2011	10838.094	856.647	1718.957	4743.969	2223.459	1106.013	694.443
2012	10825.536	895.385	1737.894	5023.576	2331.209	1149.42	721.675
2013	10849.678	927.3	1742.395	5475.725	2446.796	1190.895	741.208
2014	10805.998	996.075	1743.222	5705.654	2610.423	1211.022	764.498
2015	10861.736	1047.539	1737.805	5881.743	2745.549	1223.367	786.464
2016	10942.965	1080.228	1763.542	6225.365	2931.89	1227.977	801.054
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Notes: excludes electricity generation from pumped storage; non-OECD Asia excludes China.

Producers, net exporters and net importers of electricity


Notes: Producers refers to gross production minus production from pumped storage plants.