Coal Statistics

Comprehensive historical review and current market trends in the world coal sector

The IEA's Coal Information provides a comprehensive review of historical and current market trends in the world coal sector, including 2018 provisional data. It provides a review of the world coal market in 2017, alongside a statistical overview of developments, which covers world coal production and coal reserves, coal demand by type, coal trade and coal prices. The IEA also provides Quarterly Coal Statistics, a free service that provides the latest quarterly trends on production and trade of coal mainly in OECD countries.


Data service Purchase Coal Information Free overview Documentation

Production


World coal production increased in 2018 by 250 Mt, an increase of 3.3%, driven by increases in steam and coking coal production.

	OECD	China	Rest of world	World total
1971	1690.119	392	904.857	2986.976
1972	1700.459	410	925.967	3036.426
1973	1708.862	417	947.705	3073.567
1974	1703.392	413	982.74	3099.132
1975	1791.583	482	1021.94	3295.523
1976	1839.033	483	1041.812	3363.845
1977	1870.719	550	1066.196	3486.915
1978	1854.191	618	1081.832	3554.023
1979	1985.112	635	1103.771	3723.883
1980	2035.731	620.15	1131.36	3787.241
1981	2041.485	621.64	1156.906	3820.031
1982	2103.679	666.33	1201.746	3971.755
1983	2067.104	714.53	1226.931	4008.565
1984	2157.805	789.23	1261.918	4208.953
1985	2236.425	837.272	1306.371	4380.068
1986	2270.288	858.157	1357.938	4486.383
1987	2311.173	890.425	1394.278	4595.876
1988	2309.509	942.807	1436.48	4688.796
1989	2336.393	1015.469	1416.56	4768.422
1990	2270.008386	1039.82	1335.005	4644.833386
1991	2159.952579	1040.692	1280.258	4480.902579
1992	2093.988521	1072.8	1264.856	4431.644521
1993	1991.577025	1112.298	1222.661	4326.536025
1994	2030.92696	1202.836	1168.501	4402.26396
1995	2036.874131	1338.746	1181.765	4557.385131
1996	2061.183537	1379.376	1180.937	4621.496537
1997	2086.554229	1335.871	1198.976	4621.401229
1998	2084.264478	1295.638	1189.237	4569.139478
1999	2038.136513	1263.752	1196.694	4498.582513
2000	2017.307682	1354.886	1266.174	4638.367682
2001	2093.46189	1450.443	1316.786	4860.69089
2002	2059.399666	1538.839	1315.884	4914.122666
2003	2027.651504	1818.95	1416.63	5263.231504
2004	2081.275548	2089.273	1492.857	5663.405548
2005	2116.697319	2317.325	1588.275	6022.297319
2006	2142.653435	2519.939	1704.492	6367.084435
2007	2153.576503	2721.845	1768.737	6644.158503
2008	2152.105208	2844.327	1845.645	6842.077208
2009	2047.032465	3042.699	1878.819	6968.550465
2010	2071.405082	3316.101	1966.32	7353.826082
2011	2080.169405	3608.201	2111.335	7799.705405
2012	2028.321711	3677.589	2209.817	7915.727711
2013	1989.362786	3748.53	2236.928	7974.820786
2014	2021.916077	3640.167	2275.657	7937.740077
2015	1907.694922	3563.165	2259.551	7730.410922
2016	1722.470806	3268.207	2320.044796	7310.722602
2017	1761.302884	3397.1937	2404.413425	7562.910009
2018p	1720.107813	3550.067	2543.137321	7813.312134
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China has been the world’s leading coal producer since 1985 and retained the top spot last year, producing 3 550 Mt of coal in total, 4.5% higher than in 2017. Meanwhile after a brief increase in 2017, production in the United States decreased by 2.5% in 2018, continuing the long-term trend that has seen production fall by more than one third since 2008.

While the list of top ten coal producers remained unchanged, there was a marked difference in production between OECD and non-OECD countries. While the United States, Australia, Germany and Poland posted decreases, all non-OECD countries in the top ten increased production.

OECD countries accounted for around 40% of world steam coal production until 2000, however this share has generally declined over the past two decades. Non-OECD countries have increased their steam coal production, predominantly led by the expansion of the Chinese coal industry.

The recent decrease in coking coal production that began in 2015 was reversed in 2018, with world production recovering to 1033 Mt.

Worldwide, lignite production decreased in 2018 by 2.5%. OECD lignite production decreased by 3.8%, led by the United States, Australia and Germany. On the other hand, Turkey increased its lignite production to 85 Mt outpacing Russia, which also posted a considerable increase of 6.5 Mt.

Trade

	OECD imports	OECD exports	Non-OECD imports	Non-OECD exports	World trade
1971	13.52919896	11.91322811	2.557461329	3.467139625	8.258548678
1972	14.19689247	12.64416352	2.498199972	3.263215441	8.457487661
1973	14.31940625	13.01683954	2.617456012	3.344142885	8.755353724
1974	16.12627801	14.76345701	2.712578862	3.519374453	9.73570411
1975	16.33161329	15.38416813	2.918767419	3.242751853	9.659877009
1976	15.12517257	13.65811548	2.792181488	3.584825713	9.015425833
1977	15.58886107	13.92191092	3.023106016	4.163197571	9.264759555
1978	15.01784991	14.14610059	2.921424284	4.093987967	9.224328983
1979	17.01835937	15.57897136	3.271242507	4.820546716	10.40119821
1980	18.10033215	16.09908037	3.263339716	5.43216264	11.06356024
1981	19.1648899	17.34425193	3.108448514	5.197003395	11.61353965
1982	19.11888771	17.43302417	3.707056175	4.832159822	11.31658097
1983	17.76188073	17.16979585	4.347204549	4.964560747	11.16514445
1984	20.4081339	19.37848325	4.569053682	5.537819254	12.46020476
1985	21.21742729	19.69071841	5.039705863	6.534248019	13.21618227
1986	20.98179493	19.42335634	5.149098375	6.597995458	12.9224272
1987	20.19765859	18.57580458	5.347624243	6.642111865	12.47476469
1988	21.30339497	19.60282038	5.634480383	7.162163959	13.17367461
1989	21.8258053	20.0558303	5.480157361	7.334741726	13.4731385
1990	23.22601821	20.55434671	10.17213934	12.97784962	16.47708609
1991	24.73171836	21.75862544	9.118096777	11.6695289	16.40067137
1992	24.80489347	21.58887755	8.62961233	12.20110158	16.57692568
1993	23.69473492	20.0287886	7.57976655	10.3968263	14.80939816
1994	24.92895166	20.37841064	7.344865209	10.50257655	14.97784093
1995	26.33960583	22.39304373	7.454170688	10.90381137	15.9525253
1996	26.45032917	21.96160213	7.329440654	11.8989138	16.38358432
1997	27.42935804	22.46688234	7.866638202	13.01690349	17.32677566
1998	27.94068917	22.41400128	7.852307094	13.00665481	17.26072783
1999	28.22240317	21.03703955	7.545364018	13.8953159	17.09523585
2000	30.14176459	21.01539029	8.598530782	16.37102865	18.47691383
2001	31.93075967	20.55235918	8.793812618	18.5220997	19.41979058
2002	32.42322906	20.32976336	8.929982268	17.29502172	18.60387681
2003	33.80772195	20.44769219	8.534314814	17.46079441	18.67000877
2004	34.98751647	20.51320957	8.470307851	16.51395532	18.04800694
2005	34.51591516	21.45763605	8.29950182	16.34804543	18.19047331
2006	36.46307617	21.19063388	8.414627068	17.18171088	18.5575613
2007	36.30398235	22.26869445	8.747091743	16.21093999	18.19800832
2008	37.39636094	24.62765243	8.954302365	15.15799961	18.14915458
2009	36.80576909	26.24050023	10.58700675	14.77635174	18.01403791
2010	37.32172159	28.65304152	11.97856749	15.56505683	19.18742841
2011	38.97115885	30.11444908	12.34208584	16.55492053	20.05771745
2012	42.1367992	34.08603561	13.83039524	17.01278412	21.17835098
2013	42.58333795	36.0310533	14.86415503	17.30554461	21.82050304
2014	42.73633894	38.07902672	15.247128	16.99474037	21.92882212
2015	44.83657649	39.98136198	13.40780834	15.78468296	21.1970496
2016	45.85581911	41.14363477	15.20050091	17.12479344	22.34957335
2017	47.20643803	43.53538758	15.89928214	17.66993563	23.11197344
2018p	47.64439028	46.30854265	16.58276321	17.96420138	23.67346839
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	Australia	Colombia	Indonesia	Russian Federation	South Africa	United States
1971	20.824	0.019			1.444	52.637
1972	23.643	0.059			1.243	51.88
1973	28.149	0.065			1.944	48.613
1974	28.387	0.101			2.277	55.031
1975	32.422				2.687	60.155
1976	30.425	0.019	0.004		5.961	54.456
1977	35.372	0.12	0.015		12.702	49.275
1978	36.551	1.38	0.033		15.389	37.345
1979	40.285	1.432	0.061		23.346	59.912
1980	42.384	1.445	0.113		28.159	83.286
1981	50.48	1.469	0.159		29.548	102.095
1982	46.32	1.569	0.209		28.296	96.412
1983	61.081	1.694	0.429		31.22	70.553
1984	76.42	2.185	0.857		38.857	73.919
1985	88.641	4.676	0.998		47.63	84.078
1986	91.937	5.084	0.873		46.185	77.58
1987	101.152	8.938	0.85		41.7	72.218
1988	99.618	10.121	0.966		44.17	86.203
1989	98.669	12.487	2.489		46.931	91.457
1990	103.396	13.505	4.66	59.185	49.9	95.982
1991	120.183	16.379	7.242	40.381	47.357	98.854
1992	126.242	14.614	15.407	43.396	52.059	93.001
1993	131.752	17.616	16.878	27.202	51.711	67.602
1994	131.201	18.437	20.214	23.332	54.838	64.736
1995	136.702	18.274	31.308	28.434	59.676	80.329
1996	140.856	24.781	36.37	27.4	60.224	82.076
1997	157.557	27.58	41.714	24.376	64.2	75.79
1998	166.796	30.061	47.6	25.662	61.3	72.391
1999	171.861	29.932	55.75	29.313	66.235	53.048
2000	186.962	35.391	56.797	38.329	69.91	53.061
2001	192.178	38.868	66.344	42.798	69.21	44.149
2002	204.334	36.51	72.981	44.28	69.231	35.927
2003	208.75	45.644	87.888	55.942	71.531	39.016
2004	219.343	50.902	105.121	68.931	67.946	43.543
2005	232.33	53.607	128.608	86.558	71.442	45.306
2006	232.465	61.968	183.188	91.93	68.747	45.039
2007	244.39	64.575	194.885	98.638	66.963	53.673
2008	252.189	67.761	199.947	98.119	57.891	73.953
2009	261.747	66.756	233.431	106.445	51.977	53.612
2010	292.617	68.148	265	132.801	67.23	74.132
2011	284.51	79.273	353.398	124.593	68.807	97.303
2012	301.516	83.295	388.138	131.69	76.009	115.089
2013	336.196	74.757	426.354	140.754	74.565	106.745
2014	375.044	87.117	411.483	155.504	69.029	88.229
2015	392.348	72.788	367.953	155.241	75.83	67.093
2016	389.301	83.325	372.926	171.108	69.944	54.676
2017	378.938	102.689092	393.770129	189.721	71.067139	87.955
2018p	381.945	81.923	438.960706	209.854	69.308	104.9
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	China	Germany	India	Japan	Korea	Chinese Taipei
1971		20.72		46.5	0.056	0.011
1972		20.528		50.5	0.033	0
1973		21.705		58	0.649	0.117
1974		19.948		64.58	0.839	0.495
1975		17.821		62.34	0.786	0.04
1976		17.331		60.94	1.586	0.17
1977	2.04	17.795		58.29	2.1	0.89
1978	2.44	17.656	0.22	52.858	2.169	1.386
1979	2.15	21.29	0.94	59.386	4.349	2.591
1980	1.99	18.28	0.55	68.57	5.032	4.637
1981	1.93	20.502	0.65	77.958	7.246	4.777
1982	2.19	19.665	1.38	78.535	9.039	5.581
1983	2.14	16.938	0.46	75.125	10.151	6.371
1984	2.49	15.81	0.58	87.227	12.194	7.49
1985	2.307	18.199	2.03	93.449	17.131	10.091
1986	2.471	19.643	2.1	90.392	16.437	10.685
1987	1.941	17.122	2.97	90.916	18.279	14.022
1988	1.743	15.187	3.7	101.241	22.657	17.455
1989	2.29	13.061	4.41	101.509	24.216	16.852
1990	2.003	15.663	6.046	106.918616	23.729	18.527
1991	1.368	18.851	5.272	112.657115	29.094	18.444
1992	1.63	19.092	6.495	110.627832	30.781	22.139
1993	1.428	16.081	7.33	112.052938	37.381	25.345
1994	1.209	18.106	10.556	121.476963	41.009	26.721
1995	1.635	17.184	12.512	127.35319	45.831	28.757
1996	3.217	18.298	13.175	130.422684	46.074	31.148
1997	2.013	22.182	16.44	136.383478	51.997	36.219
1998	1.586	24.193	16.535	130.046412	53.586	37.093
1999	1.673	24.731	19.7	138.614808	54.569	41.104
2000	2.178	29.744	20.93	150.340771	64.895	45.409
2001	2.661	35.508	20.548	154.614391	66.381	49.091
2002	11.258	33.455	23.26	161.328012	71.708	51.814
2003	11.098	34.774	21.683	166.449134	73.405	54.67
2004	18.614	39.553	28.95	180.834799	78.963	60.483
2005	26.216	37.114	38.586	176.986859	76.758	60.252
2006	38.222	45.329	43.081	179.124298	79.707	62.311
2007	51.602	46.314	49.794	186.994055	88.285	65.232
2008	43.626	45.455	65.201	184.108363	99.584	63.84
2009	131.88	38.485	96.161	163.731425	102.982	58.635
2010	184.352	45.725	121.849	185.410916	118.591	63.155
2011	222.242	47.845	135.75	174.052748	129.15	66.589
2012	288.786	49.034	164.228	182.555546	124.268	64.629
2013	327.182	54.337	191.211	195.608671	126.507	65.951
2014	291.586	53.753	243.536	185.984536	131.032	65.781
2015	204.132	54.548	207.819	189.238519	133.904	64.759
2016	281.968	57.783	192.128	185.891341	134.461	65.627
2017	284.330121	50.516	209.372	186.955954	138.881778	67.590812
2018p	295.418996	44.392772	240.19	185.063931	142	66.513183
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Consumption


In 2018, total global coal consumption in energy terms increased by 1.2% or 66.0 Mtce, as OECD consumption decreased by 3.2% and non-OECD countries increased consumption by 2.5%. OECD coal consumption hit its lowest level since 1976, 27.4% lower than the maximum coal consumption the OECD reached in 2007.

	OECD Americas	OECD Asia Oceania	OECD Europe	China (Incl. Hong Kong)	Other non-OECD	World total
1971	426.0087691	121.1733697	628.0199547	274.6324353	585.2155796	2035.085537
1972	440.774747	120.542117	592.7642737	287.6456011	597.763338	2039.514877
1973	468.8959373	128.6401227	604.4077376	292.8267166	611.7399577	2106.510472
1974	469.2859734	134.1024171	592.5295647	290.1287786	633.4892514	2119.535985
1975	468.0820749	131.0043771	584.1832814	339.1985356	656.2880287	2178.756298
1976	515.979947	131.2382133	610.6755497	340.8399527	672.3535963	2271.087259
1977	519.0321104	130.9465409	609.4052583	389.8500666	683.7315484	2332.965524
1978	533.1525754	117.4872584	614.3187956	438.5657684	690.2994046	2393.823802
1979	554.0057361	128.0893243	653.1019476	449.4187816	704.2394244	2488.855214
1980	575.7333516	146.3639339	661.905533	446.733536	707.86264	2538.598994
1981	586.0054081	160.7027146	649.3454054	444.7810291	713.9878409	2554.822398
1982	567.887042	161.0335311	663.4643086	469.6650246	742.9941384	2605.044045
1983	589.7055966	158.3448457	654.8304616	497.8388036	750.5941104	2651.313817
1984	628.7685326	177.47763	633.389443	548.2588201	763.0852439	2750.97967
1985	649.4532069	186.6617071	675.5079057	559.3412764	779.4990516	2850.463148
1986	629.9872413	183.1673837	674.4971163	583.1897237	810.0321143	2880.873579
1987	664.801191	184.1183659	681.856393	623.047359	838.927408	2992.750717
1988	692.6019711	198.202109	668.7655897	666.9599591	855.2129699	3081.742599
1989	701.927754	201.3624203	655.5805209	679.2589263	839.5738177	3077.703439
1990	701.3853496	203.0555377	628.0964497	747.0391541	866.3191389	3145.89563
1991	694.0956146	208.4063266	605.8154687	716.7712691	844.5381499	3069.626829
1992	701.9885889	202.2016406	564.5749641	739.7423874	805.4222376	3013.929818
1993	717.2391477	208.7493103	526.441797	790.8921413	786.9377637	3030.26016
1994	723.5355167	216.065677	511.905931	848.6826774	756.8970816	3057.086884
1995	723.244448	222.6284327	505.6769466	937.5860313	757.4716477	3146.607506
1996	752.17975	232.8625783	504.736725	953.4292543	750.1369847	3193.345292
1997	773.922057	246.552255	489.6817649	921.5092136	737.6300914	3169.295382
1998	778.7313579	245.2643131	472.4448844	938.0877686	728.3413294	3162.869653
1999	785.6304064	255.52083	445.0610139	939.067924	750.639385	3175.919559
2000	819.15242	278.4555209	457.9214961	961.0749524	781.0400326	3297.644422
2001	807.5615846	288.4144774	452.6050451	1012.060328	793.913436	3354.554871
2002	818.1087176	296.5462461	449.2957001	1093.832213	808.133415	3465.916292
2003	818.993842	303.96587	466.383635	1303.791661	842.496804	3735.631812
2004	842.162526	321.7982814	463.857241	1507.274425	894.618128	4029.710601
2005	859.287607	315.1072466	453.4859903	1732.248249	911.618645	4271.747737
2006	850.1750683	322.9940923	474.3859939	1926.519092	954.96884	4529.043086
2007	855.4004907	334.2555703	475.1239554	2110.652531	996.532861	4771.965408
2008	837.6491686	340.5469854	443.821021	2148.198798	1051.364702	4821.580675
2009	744.7593084	325.6533004	399.1437667	2313.703531	1040.357319	4823.617226
2010	774.9534567	353.6104231	419.0313999	2557.326515	1098.205356	5203.12715
2011	740.4670917	350.7614376	426.942475	2785.280371	1131.866321	5435.317696
2012	660.1819121	353.7561391	442.8857687	2828.597228	1196.326485	5481.747533
2013	670.9478697	360.3297813	429.4140176	2916.593446	1210.965996	5588.25111
2014	670.5231314	353.229645	405.9212699	2902.208467	1283.23743	5615.119943
2015	585.873503	356.6620634	400.143063	2859.734989	1290.65869	5493.072308
2016	538.2445191	353.9804511	377.4595597	2751.611733	1300.308476	5321.604739
2017	524.42228	355.4998799	368.4764927	2785.253178	1359.450084	5393.101915
2018p	500.0821466	354.0148097	354.7283261	2813.665757	1436.564099	5459.055138
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Consumption in China rose by 1.0% in 2018 to 2813.7 Mtce, continuing the trend from the previous year after consecutive drops over 2013-2016. The United States saw a major decrease in consumption in 2018, while India saw a major increase.

World steam coal consumption was up 1.6% in 2018. Steam coal consumption in the OECD decreased by 33.6 Mt to 1 112 Mt, including the decrease of 16.1 Mt in the United States and 5.4 Mt in Spain.

Global coking coal consumption increased in 2018 by 1.1% reaching 992.1 Mt, an increase of 115.1% since 2001. Consumption within China accounts for 59.2% of global coking coal consumption. Coking coal consumption in the OECD decreased by 1.2%, remaining 11.3% below 2008, pre-economic crisis.

2018 global lignite consumption was 793.5 Mt, a decrease of 2.9% from 2017. Germany remained the largest producer and consumer of lignite in 2018, using 166.3 Mt, ahead of Turkey and Russia. Consumption in the United States decreased by 18.7%, as it become the world’s fifth largest consumer.

Uses of coal


	Electricity/heat	Iron and steel	Other	Residential
	577.365	238.883	444.839	268.379
	3531.523622	988.035191	1057.824287	174.424633
	1136.927	289.101	323.12	86.86
	1525.760457	208.666511	91.953516	26.50068
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