CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion

An essential tool for analysts and policy makers

In recognition of the fundamental importance of understanding energy related environmental issues, the IEA's CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion provides a full analysis of emissions stemming from energy use. This annual publication has become an essential tool for analysts and policy makers in many international fora.

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Also see the IEA CO2 Emissions Factors data product.


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CO2 emissions from fuel combustion 2018 overview


Introduction

In 2016, global CO2 emissions from fuel combustion were 32.31 GtCO2, broadly similar to levels in 2015. Looking back further, emissions have more than doubled since the early seventies and increased by around 40% since 2000. Most of these increases are linked to increased economic output. Despite emissions being relatively stable between 2013 and 2016, initial IEA analysis showed that in 2017 emissions increased by around 1.5%, led by China, India and the European Union.

Regional trends

Global CO2 emissions are driven by different regional dynamics. Specifically, the growth in emissions until 2000 was largely driven by UNFCCC Annex I countries and the United States in particular. Since 2000 however, these countries have generally decreased their emissions (-10%) while emerging economies have generally seen increases.

	Americas	Asia	Europe	Oceania	Africa
1990	6.062526881	5.832788569	7.17622524	0.286889986	0.52910702
1991	6.043389494	6.073206133	7.06214181	0.288539059	0.533882668
1992	6.145281922	6.279955066	6.645692404	0.294449191	0.542698543
1993	6.282118441	6.579892625	6.317857032	0.29807385	0.551347638
1994	6.419097849	6.852459819	5.978363728	0.30463865	0.551722
1995	6.503980469	7.312108948	5.953293777	0.315239243	0.576350581
1996	6.735492479	7.418797602	6.005929204	0.32686354	0.59861885
1997	7.08316808	7.608620374	5.795072589	0.336481954	0.63170393
1998	7.184004084	7.647054868	5.763527628	0.357061096	0.646109992
1999	7.201755508	7.766030048	5.71744336	0.363588408	0.646229094
2000	7.435210304	8.147322044	5.757646201	0.37089664	0.658251521
2001	7.405959724	8.404495034	5.839100946	0.380348508	0.721152978
2002	7.256121868	8.828264409	5.815328804	0.388600905	0.745939495
2003	7.365140855	9.541003989	5.981564593	0.395244435	0.779965003
2004	7.497507239	10.45972853	5.962466479	0.409289081	0.829122275
2005	7.566558759	11.31793309	5.917481474	0.416185366	0.857350482
2006	7.488894529	12.09987596	5.993773124	0.421723577	0.873506472
2007	7.650709923	12.95515068	5.939096659	0.429655231	0.909515166
2008	7.522369998	13.30731353	5.868430579	0.432973259	0.968384562
2009	7.068717715	13.88135301	5.421931466	0.435246158	0.957090002
2010	7.410512604	14.89209626	5.641967974	0.429705042	0.995372706
2011	7.231842469	15.95656909	5.584253579	0.428531374	0.999776396
2012	7.069347227	16.53481693	5.483946253	0.429067157	1.058115386
2013	7.235164136	17.06627351	5.353800928	0.425595277	1.104449294
2014	7.260978	17.26239372	5.096761968	0.418334781	1.150167811
2015	7.122388764	17.31686618	5.076590311	0.425242045	1.141014857
2016	7.003386231	17.42673295	5.048573645	0.437818988	1.157608667
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	China	India	Japan	Korea	Middle East	Rest of Asia
1990	2.122155917	0.52905594	1.037104219	0.231805829	0.535950927	1.376715737
2016	9.101529118	2.076833008	1.147127886	0.589173106	1.766736448	2.745333384
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Note: China region includes Hong Kong, China

	Electricity and heat	Transport	Buildings	Industry	Other
2016	13.41239888	7.866011673	2.720646891	6.109258455	2.205904237
2016 electricity and heat reallocated		8.046171542	8.609037243	11.78918374	3.869827615
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	Electricity and heat	Transport	Industry	Buildings	Other
Africa & Oceania	0.678091068	0.464612635	0.189653947	0.101720592	0.161349413
Americas	2.440290625	2.489369907	0.770652658	0.674006143	0.629066898
Asia	8.202650307	2.440487073	4.506294915	1.192893234	1.084407421
Europe	2.091358443	1.231453994	0.642656934	0.752023774	0.3310805
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At the regional level, transport does not include international marine and aviation bunkers.

Competing factors

At a global level, electricity consumption more than doubled between 1990 and 2016, reaching 25 PWh. Yet over the same period, electricity consumption per unit of GDP - a measure of economic intensity - decreased by around half percent annually. This stands in stark contrast to oil, whose intensity declined at an annual rate of 2.4%.

	Oil consumption / GDP	Electricity consumption / GDP
1990	70.15387641	22.10666439
1991	69.57184382	22.33227095
1992	68.70667795	22.12698368
1993	67.93219032	22.24913375
1994	66.35147248	22.12963825
1995	65.56552738	22.15729545
1996	64.76975924	22.0120851
1997	63.86519355	21.62336675
1998	62.51556009	21.63825238
1999	61.53741365	21.50609986
2000	59.32962605	21.50463883
2001	58.55851217	21.16765468
2002	57.49088115	21.41389248
2003	56.66734714	21.39283201
2004	55.92847621	21.23617227
2005	53.79955524	21.15613137
2006	51.87441601	20.86081449
2007	49.53470573	20.64958933
2008	48.14632937	20.47061665
2009	47.4353547	20.46028386
2010	46.45599422	20.73081571
2011	44.57970866	20.57149585
2012	43.9727748	20.36407596
2013	42.54203888	20.30166435
2014	41.86678817	20.0042806
2015	41.05565756	19.7197627
2016	40.1919813	19.65833656
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	CO2 intensity of fossil mix	Generation efficiency	Fossil share of electricity	Total electricity output	CO2 emissions
Americas	-30.14182945	-20.94163098	-29.98498685	15.42323086	-65.64521641
Europe	3.744077188	-14.22412447	-30.53445721	-3.308744571	-44.32324906
China	0	-41.29059	-62.09112269	226.3544382	122.9727255
Asia (without China)	3.969701563	-20.80646876	23.93614613	118.8274619	125.9268408
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Focus on transport

	Road	Air	Water	Other
1990	3.30319493	0.542315512	0.471986967	0.277873121
2016	5.852628863	0.913764503	0.83928257	0.26033574
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The Americas historically had the highest transport emission levels of all regions, and this has continued over recent years, though Asia is quickly closing the gap with annual growth rates five time larger than the Americas.

	Europe	Americas	Asia	Oceania	Africa
1990	1.157806154	1.840702515	0.782078224	0.072242913	0.111890215
1991	1.170715795	1.822448953	0.819721254	0.070906324	0.116851388
1992	1.150014241	1.863615399	0.861365252	0.072948449	0.123077771
1993	1.103851074	1.903258555	0.915917427	0.074543553	0.122206574
1994	1.074138526	1.977095188	0.938149163	0.077012963	0.123645666
1995	1.066716012	2.023640374	0.995330407	0.0805307	0.13236984
1996	1.085266608	2.085945782	1.087491034	0.083210875	0.138109428
1997	1.090716172	2.130486297	1.079057098	0.084300546	0.147602193
1998	1.146135486	2.185993638	1.063512991	0.084579085	0.147761302
1999	1.161003662	2.232472663	1.114475711	0.086209669	0.156310609
2000	1.149637108	2.268216858	1.235197324	0.089138489	0.160551688
2001	1.171994391	2.272175584	1.26539358	0.088786879	0.168145119
2002	1.187282833	2.295996659	1.316339894	0.090945176	0.176390091
2003	1.212803271	2.330824837	1.368958238	0.092012701	0.18678584
2004	1.253143434	2.384094263	1.46306443	0.095278522	0.194524433
2005	1.253823881	2.420396449	1.509937745	0.09546617	0.198915718
2006	1.278363107	2.432578073	1.560899269	0.097507732	0.203246403
2007	1.29962325	2.463769475	1.655033328	0.099457984	0.21351283
2008	1.293173386	2.384514621	1.72417807	0.101196282	0.228738145
2009	1.237322062	2.289009107	1.786187088	0.100475376	0.238009867
2010	1.247353742	2.384469164	1.873528335	0.103227558	0.258173477
2011	1.240137384	2.363603674	1.980153512	0.107036621	0.26364696
2012	1.194218612	2.360469212	2.12351371	0.10775192	0.281966093
2013	1.189308903	2.41214999	2.228740187	0.109466243	0.315540287
2014	1.19681399	2.418338718	2.285513262	0.110139454	0.329064256
2015	1.207428672	2.469594847	2.38013796	0.113107055	0.333451415
2016	1.231453994	2.489369907	2.440487073	0.114733841	0.349878794
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