World Energy Balances

Complete energy balances for over 150 countries and regions

The IEA’s World Energy Balances presents comprehensive energy balances for all the world’s largest energy producing and consuming countries. It contains detailed data on the supply and consumption of energy for 150 countries and regions, including all OECD countries, over 100 other key countries, as well as world totals. The companion World Energy Statistics presents provides more detailed data for all energy sources – coal, gas, oil, electricity, renewables and waste – in original units.


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Introduction


	1971 - 2017	2016 - 2017
Coal	2.1	3.3
Oil	1.2	0.1
Natural gas	2.8	4
Nuclear	7.1	1.1
Hydro	2.7	0.7
Biofuels and waste	1.7	1.2
Other renewables	9.3	13.8
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While energy production of all fuels is very concentrated, with over half of production concentrated in fewer than five countries (and in some cases only two countries), there is significant variation.

China produced almost half of world coal in 2017, and almost a third of hydro while the United States and France combined produced almost 50% of all nuclear. Saudi Arabia, Russia and the United States contributed slightly less than 40% of the world crude oil while Russia and the US also accounted for 40% of world natural gas.

The only notable change in energy production in 2017 compared to 2016 is that Canada replaced Qatar as the 4th largest producer of natural gas.

	China	USA	Saudi Arabia	Russia	Other OPEC	Iran	Canada	France	Brazil	Others
Coal	1785870	373180								1614370
Oil		590848	568727	548998	1330233					1438405
Natural gas		641678		580954		182498	153431			1604332
Nuclear	64637	218573		53279				103796		247196
Hydro	99492	25998					33752		31892	159895
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	Coal	Oil	Natural gas	Nuclear	Hydro	Biofuels	Other renewables
1971	1434.94	2439.398	894.078	27.595	104.861	612.609	5.519
2017	3786.412	4443.096	3101.784	684.628	349.3	1327.34	279.44
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	OECD          	Africa              	Non-OECD Americas       	Non-OECD Europe and Eurasia    	Middle East         	Non-OECD Asia	Bunkers
1971	3372.388309	188.3688212	190.1513502	854.006141	42.9604943	705.3510149	166.227497
2017	5309.024069	812.0094907	611.7597238	1121.829205	750.1572367	4954.94031	412.52342
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Total final consumption has soared in non-OECD Asia (which includes China) since the early 2000s, accounting for over one third of global TFC in 2017.

Meanwhile the generally increasing trend in the OECD came to an end with the 2008 global economic crisis, with total final consumption staying steady around a plateau of 3 600 Mtoe  for a number of years. It picked up again in 2014 and OECD TFC reached 3 711 Mtoe in 2017, its highest level since 2008.

	Bunkers	OECD	Africa	Non-OECD Americas	Non-OECD Europe and Eurasia	Middle East	Non-OECD Asia
1971	166.227497	2562.68895	157.8841669	148.1829752	567.7157587	26.0675444	613.4441737
1972	174.836	2684.6061	164.13644	154.0815	600.59668	28.501153	637.5148
1973	183.910384	2815.678275	170.5215582	165.681817	632.788446	33.4162244	657.064975
1974	173.3990006	2755.135113	174.4024674	173.9828038	662.9977941	37.2680751	675.998431
1975	163.7662506	2683.010165	181.5331127	178.5488632	723.6713003	42.9217456	724.6636251
1976	167.3067594	2827.160838	189.0017969	187.5545596	735.5094345	48.415912	749.3856634
1977	172.4867	2897.504	195.2964	194.0512	763.5345	56.43205	797.3921
1978	175.5743	2975.181	201.5762	201.7453	803.2714	62.92118	841.2187
1979	181.163	3051.235	207.6017	211.7297	831.0619	75.9997	860.2878
1980	178.1644	2945.428	216.264	214.6075	869.3394	79.54083	865.68
1981	170.3907	2882.042	224.7239	211.8355	876.6502	91.11174	880.3655
1982	162.5343	2783.883	227.9692	214.1108	884.9001	100.4042	908.1454
1983	157.2527	2781.623	231.975	215.2998	895.3859	111.9293	937.0869
1984	161.0061967	2900.972186	239.6883515	222.3598373	910.8433591	112.7312144	983.18175
1985	170.1002	2929.964	246.215	225.4462	922.8373	118.2095	1004.353
1986	183.5086	2955.87	250.6302	231.6183	952.7074	122.7259	1047.189
1987	187.079	3041.11	258.9908	242.2901	969.4711	132.8548	1090.715
1988	196.8706	3133.719	266.9337	244.9373	994.4884	140.1147	1143.189
1989	201.5619	3111.856	275.5964	248.4773	998.8625	152.3203	1173.131
1990	201.9156	3117.709	287.2981	248.4786	1056.497	150.1807	1201.869
1991	204.0089	3153.358	291.9762	250.6648	1032.16	158.3422	1238.609
1992	215.5612	3163.053	296.0723	253.5334	933.4003	176.4289	1269.578
1993	213.3047	3206.204	298.9292	261.0709	869.8878	182.654	1314.835
1994	222.064	3264.768	307.2012	275.7375	755.7786	198.0452	1358.961
1995	229.9172	3336.988	320.6913	287.5929	727.6381	201.8118	1432.699
1996	236.9799	3451.32	332.4085	302.4915	676.9874	211.9236	1434.175
1997	245.414	3477.966	341.9074	313.6871	650.5121	218.9582	1480.2
1998	253.2244	3468.125	348.4601	323.4395	636.0597	226.1552	1487.8
1999	265.2463	3550.859	358.8899	327.1522	643.9246	231.9123	1495.198
2000	273.4457	3642.68	364.4161	330.0293	646.0366	240.7525	1532.579
2001	263.4778	3626.187	374.381	330.7575	652.5326	253.6276	1567.743
2002	275.6659	3642.642	388.0962	334.3393	643.4855	263.9179	1633.85
2003	278.2689	3702.308	401.4377	338.9309	662.7792	270.7622	1748.287
2004	303.1609	3760.753	414.4417	357.2389	673.97	290.0787	1935.497
2005	317.8874	3761.301	431.7303	368.7047	671.983	313.1263	2107.304
2006	334.5336	3767.388	443.6213	378.1247	686.4742	336.2648	2230.352
2007	349.6952	3780.966	457.8352	391.7133	702.7671	360.8482	2351.824
2008	352.7679	3716.661	471.2459	409.812	715.976	380.7776	2428.961
2009	336.0456	3558.943	484.5609	405.3325	658.5898	398.132	2548.012
2010	358.6194	3703.747	494.8091	438.9839	704.5696	415.0703	2717.883
2011	364.4275	3620.861	504.6474	445.3908	718.569	430.8959	2856.571
2012	351.0621	3595.17	521.1684	459.7502	719.7896	450.8896	2956.668
2013	353.1911	3651.429	545.0484	465.208	695.442	459.0435	3044.159
2014	365.7077	3614	555.2118	472.1607	702.8958	476.7907	3128.528
2015	382.9021	3637.528	562.5302	467.5236	688.6481	480.6275	3194.372
2016	396.3429	3672.637	574.9852	464.3712	701.8079	481.4466	3241.994
2017	412.5234	3711.459	593.919	463.3497	725.6276	493.0025	3317.413
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OECD countries


	Annual change
2000-2010	-18.435587
2010-2016	-125.3848567
2016-2017	-35.21143
2017-2018	52.17789
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	Gas	Nuclear	Renewables	Coal	Oil
1990	780	1746	1333	3099	704
1991	818	1838	1336	3133	709
1992	845	1859	1342	3134	715
1993	893	1925	1421	3178	662
1994	1000	1987	1380	3224	710
1995	1078	2067	1471	3279	651
1996	1091	2124	1507	3421	645
1997	1200	2095	1514	3469	631
1998	1307	2153	1485	3544	649
1999	1442	2223	1495	3558	620
2000	1550	2258	1535	3782	592
2001	1622	2291	1441	3684	563
2002	1744	2296	1514	3772	554
2003	1787	2244	1512	3879	577
2004	1912	2339	1577	3879	540
2005	2015	2362	1623	3956	537
2006	2155	2370	1680	3945	424
2007	2347	2288	1692	3988	458
2008	2410	2291	1797	3913	398
2009	2407	2253	1846	3595	327
2010	2590	2288	1957	3743	313
2011	2676	2087	2096	3634	356
2012	2788	1952	2200	3498	398
2013	2660	1962	2335	3542	345
2014	2631	1980	2417	3484	280
2015	2850	1971	2518	3240	260
2016	3015	1965	2631	3045	245
2017	2983	1955	2761	3002	224
2018	3113	1976	2896	2863	204
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	Industry	Transport	Buildings	 Non-energy use
1990	842	941	947	290
1991	833	942	985	292
1992	814	966	985	299
1993	811	986	1033	296
1994	826	1015	1027	317
1995	826	1036	1055	337
1996	840	1065	1115	346
1997	856	1082	1094	362
1998	846	1100	1081	359
1999	865	1131	1104	371
2000	919	1146	1129	366
2001	883	1152	1144	363
2002	854	1167	1152	369
2003	863	1184	1188	371
2004	878	1203	1190	388
2005	863	1212	1201	380
2006	875	1225	1177	385
2007	876	1242	1180	382
2008	846	1207	1207	357
2009	758	1169	1191	344
2010	816	1194	1235	359
2011	816	1177	1180	351
2012	811	1166	1162	360
2013	814	1188	1204	349
2014	805	1189	1164	361
2015	801	1222	1164	357
2016	804	1241	1169	362
2017	815	1251	1170	375
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Africa


In 2017, Africa produced 8.1% of the world’s energy, a similar share as in 1971, although African energy production almost tripled during the same period.

African energy production is dominated by oil, and biofuels and waste, followed by natural gas and coal. Africa’s share of global TPES increased from 3.4% in 1971 to 5.8% in 2017; and despite many African countries being dependent on imports of fossil fuels, as a region it is energy self-sufficient and a net exporter of coal, natural gas and crude oil.

	Coal	Oil	Natural Gas	Biofuels and waste	Other
1971	36.4	283.6	3.9	113	2
1972	36.3	284.4	6.1	115.6	2.5
1973	38.7	296	8.1	118	2.6
1974	40.7	272.8	8.5	120.6	3.1
1975	42.5	250.3	10	123.9	3.3
1976	46.6	298.2	11.6	126.4	3.6
1977	51.3	312.5	11.9	129.3	4
1978	55.7	306.8	15.8	132.3	3.8
1979	63.3	336.6	22.5	135.4	4.1
1980	70	311	19	139	4.1
1981	76.8	250.8	20.5	143	4.2
1982	82.9	238.2	25.3	146.9	4.3
1983	86.5	238.9	34.2	150.8	3.8
1984	96.7	261.3	35.4	155.3	4.8
1985	103	271	39.3	159.5	5.5
1986	105.4	268.2	41.7	163.8	6.9
1987	105.8	269.8	45.8	168.4	6
1988	108.5	283.1	48.1	173.2	7.5
1989	105.4	301.6	53.7	178.2	8
1990	104.9	324.7	56.3	189.6	7.3
1991	107.1	338.5	61.3	193.2	7.9
1992	105.1	342.1	64	196.7	7.6
1993	112.4	339.9	66.2	200.1	7.1
1994	116.5	341.8	63	210.9	7.8
1995	122.2	349.9	69	217.4	8.5
1996	121.8	368.7	73.1	222.9	8.8
1997	129.2	384.7	82.2	226.5	9.1
1998	130.7	385.2	86.6	232.4	9.7
1999	130.8	377.3	97.8	237.9	9.9
2000	130.9	389.2	104.4	240.3	10.2
2001	130.2	394.3	108.4	246.6	10.3
2002	128.2	391.9	112.3	252.1	10.8
2003	138.1	425.3	124.1	257.2	11.2
2004	140.2	466.3	131	266.7	12
2005	141.7	489.1	157.1	274.3	11.6
2006	141.5	498.3	165.5	282.3	11.6
2007	143.1	510.4	176	287.8	12.1
2008	145.1	511.9	181.3	294.1	12.9
2009	143.6	493.6	169.1	298.8	13.3
2010	146.6	508.5	175.2	308.4	14.2
2011	145.8	430.9	170.3	319	14.7
2012	152.2	464.3	177.2	333.6	14.5
2013	151.8	429.6	166.6	341.6	16
2014	156.7	408.2	167.5	344.5	18.5
2015	153.3	403.5	166.5	352.6	18.7
2016	151.2	376	177.8	360.2	19.3
2017	157.1	395.9	194	367.8	20.3
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Americas


The main energy producers in the non-OECD Americas in 2017 were Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia, Argentina, Trinidad and Tobago and Ecuador. Together these countries produced 88.8% of the 792 Mtoe of energy produced in the region.

Brazil alone was responsible for 36.9% of the region’s production in 2017 as its crude oil production, totalling nearly half of the region’s production in 2017, has been increasing for 4 years in a row. Natural gas accounted for only 7.9% of Brazil’s total energy production in 2017 but increased by 13.1% compared to 2016.

	Brazil                          	Venezuela	Colombia                        	Argentina                       	Trinidad and Tobago             	Ecuador                         	Other
1971	49.13055	208.2155	19.3713	30.56006	8.166494	1.324335	24.43742
1972	50.39173	190.2929	18.16151	30.965	8.768266	5.213463	25.88506
1973	51.25076	201.1796	17.1867	30.52743	9.980593	11.85224	27.45852
1974	53.59279	179.3739	16.87615	30.87698	10.8878	10.1486	28.28862
1975	53.92775	142.6754	17.07247	30.63843	12.20322	9.345164	28.5736
1976	54.18487	140.7449	16.69766	31.04198	12.23039	10.72435	29.79994
1977	55.8694	138.7906	16.69732	32.70068	13.31058	10.64567	31.0287
1978	57.19752	134.4832	17.49498	33.92593	13.66905	11.52543	35.06078
1979	60.58985	147.3224	17.61998	36.35234	12.97344	11.86369	37.26806
1980	64.37445	137.3884	17.70824	38.81601	13.15756	11.71036	37.82228
1981	66.56047	133.7925	18.45062	39.45471	12.2343	11.98272	38.63055
1982	71.09648	122.8145	19.61228	39.98478	12.19403	11.85018	40.38276
1983	80.13111	117.4704	20.5982	41.9975	11.44917	13.54567	39.34687
1984	94.09207	119.734	22.74382	42.93574	12.39764	14.78738	41.09282
1985	102.4672	112.1543	24.93369	42.55845	12.83452	15.81803	40.67233
1986	102.0784	119.78	32.86719	42.87346	12.55971	16.2712	40.38396
1987	105.5904	121.8878	39.55449	43.32161	12.02813	10.40855	40.27723
1988	104.845	126.9309	40.17148	46.26286	12.44883	16.93797	39.32297
1989	107.8022	128.3406	44.05958	47.24593	12.35434	15.89559	40.20863
1990	104.239	144.7547	48.18077	48.42167	12.63052	16.39886	41.74711
1991	104.8252	160.4184	46.35064	50.22188	12.24793	17.20241	40.53288
1992	104.8149	161.5896	47.87709	54.32707	12.37358	18.09993	40.76647
1993	105.7519	170.5611	48.5569	57.13231	11.59103	19.37842	40.08076
1994	110.7801	177.7865	50.42461	62.42953	12.28917	21.22635	41.22829
1995	112.1754	192.3676	59.24312	67.12935	12.19257	21.8736	41.56782
1996	118.7295	217.037	64.83603	72.58052	12.9189	21.63374	43.07502
1997	126.4251	229.0741	66.72938	76.79535	12.87693	21.70675	43.93199
1998	133.6136	226.5574	72.70656	79.53918	13.89101	21.14008	43.91133
1999	141.5664	206.2382	75.55046	80.50642	16.10008	21.10253	44.13057
2000	147.8141	215.7857	72.33121	82.89738	19.04173	22.4177	46.29236
2001	151.8323	212.0632	72.10037	85.22929	19.67285	22.68287	46.68707
2002	167.5803	203.3347	68.34299	82.88472	23.03913	22.04766	48.58284
2003	178.5498	178.8423	73.42621	86.12573	30.14718	23.50571	50.2366
2004	182.7201	218.2257	75.31868	86.37329	32.2171	27.70614	53.08612
2005	194.9691	223.0186	78.60072	84.696	34.92559	27.53539	56.78984
2006	206.5924	226.3313	83.60194	86.03751	40.59359	28.09859	58.94561
2007	216.6871	198.8026	86.57677	83.10377	41.29398	27.29281	61.68296
2008	228.5126	200.5219	92.6209	82.51128	40.90138	27.1937	62.86904
2009	230.8797	199.8775	98.20999	81.07786	41.53652	26.13091	64.17228
2010	246.9725	197.9388	105.9341	79.51974	42.55755	26.12175	75.00302
2011	249.2022	198.9777	120.3664	77.96216	40.44801	27.02452	80.66882
2012	250.4876	194.4753	124.5307	75.87439	39.82604	27.62347	83.77398
2013	251.8639	191.7885	127.665	72.48041	39.90535	28.74063	87.81656
2014	265.8212	183.8094	130.0867	72.94063	39.66722	30.20239	90.29986
2015	277.1613	183.3574	128.1	73.77513	37.1269	29.96571	89.03999
2016	283.8832	167.9434	124.3143	75.76549	32.66389	30.60748	90.28292
2017	292.7025	150.5869	123.4837	74.2888	32.60409	29.99565	88.78998
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Asia


Since the early 1990s non-OECD Asia has been the second largest energy-producing region in the world behind the OECD, accounting for over 28% of global production in 2017.

China alone provided 61.7% of energy production in the region in 2017 compared to 60.9% in 2016. India and Indonesia together accounted for a quarter of the region’s production.

	China	India	Indonesia	Malaysia	Viet Nam	Other
1971	394.1794072	137.0156854	71.7315044	4.9358144	9.9869337	82.4349179
1972	414.734218	141.0080483	81.6844113	5.911454	9.6111637	87.2407623
1973	431.3948892	144.0691414	94.8871988	5.8121788	10.3669519	93.2243109
1974	446.0864026	150.9696895	97.0232573	5.4260339	11.1390084	96.5303895
1975	497.1715	159.3963	94.30546	6.403499	12.02795	101.1656
1976	511.8536	163.5108	105.6609	9.741412	12.46992	107.7831
1977	556.17741	167.8207	118.12063	10.674341	13.024391	112.4191
1978	604.2240129	172.5510333	119.7647739	14.1981974	13.1451227	115.7743397
1979	618.581733	175.730365	121.39634	17.8967228	13.0972819	123.708557
1980	615.50898	181.10902	125.05425	17.240081	13.183935	129.21289
1981	612.35621	193.74985	127.38433	16.007856	13.835354	129.26322
1982	637.85379	203.98881	114.18048	18.727266	14.187682	135.84386
1983	669.33694	214.52578	117.09104	26.105524	14.393953	138.55593
1984	717.19442	225.33637	133.94706	32.396639	13.886469	144.1999
1985	743.52199	231.41826	127.98279	33.323514	14.412261	153.52436
1986	763.02312	242.19289	136.34015	39.473143	14.963304	155.96495
1987	785.59552	249.71818	136.8798	40.36771	15.362396	160.1598
1988	817.145	262.6442	139.58	43.08905	16.21526	163.464
1989	858.60775	270.82861	149.11238	46.356775	16.965155	167.32668
1990	880.87538	280.48905	168.5715	47.754612	18.281966	175.68893
1991	886.71156	290.51859	183.17334	51.973003	20.201919	181.51741
1992	903.99147	293.7117	187.40468	53.354865	22.007715	182.5028
1993	932.90968	297.56565	194.29804	55.41013	24.021011	180.34262
1994	986.09737	308.24444	207.53128	57.118301	24.06911	183.06827
1995	1064.4889	322.76881	214.55717	63.444548	26.433986	187.16452
1996	1091.046	328.04837	222.74492	69.495089	28.7005	190.81822
1997	1080.5071	338.36908	227.67656	73.531047	31.482892	192.61545
1998	1079.1794	337.13813	229.13812	74.50168	34.788496	194.94555
1999	1073.7922	344.36818	237.94396	72.994712	37.238559	207.13985
2000	1123.6483	350.78553	237.50747	76.962494	39.9218	216.6053
2001	1176.2558	358.24901	241.76802	77.749579	41.782947	218.23626
2002	1226.8765	368.51075	248.08815	80.920316	44.586268	226.10016
2003	1375.125	381.26529	254.79453	84.203534	45.758321	239.6338
2004	1534.2075	392.93691	264.76765	91.47133	57.579896	251.96691
2005	1671.3799	400.71006	279.64167	94.836184	60.763692	270.98461
2006	1792.6747	405.80761	313.53439	92.229039	61.94142	279.76073
2007	1916.6179	424.79173	318.16168	92.04457	63.155308	288.2027
2008	1967.022	445.32688	323.17175	95.215696	61.504186	295.83239
2009	2051.5753	483.66612	350.81442	88.764277	66.458152	295.76947
2010	2235.4186	503.81014	378.38994	88.392402	66.392781	310.71557
2011	2384.828506	521.6199535	420.7936706	86.8266862	68.294616	316.6673063
2012	2400.1782	524.37313	433.23556	86.043069	69.378226	323.35157
2013	2465.928	522.35052	452.77265	91.748786	69.017992	328.82226
2014	2505.3118	533.18493	449.93819	93.442756	70.65501	341.49741
2015	2513.7066	538.213	426.87479	95.218863	69.877273	347.5032
2016	2360.4212	551.07828	434.37354	96.41488	67.561696	364.86756
2017	2449.4722	554.44383	448.36862	95.848462	66.387049	355.99784
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Europe and Eurasia


Energy production is very unevenly distributed across non-OECD Europe and Eurasia. Although the region as a whole is energy self-sufficient, it includes some of the most energy import-dependent countries in the world including Malta, Cyprus and Belarus.

Preliminary data for 2018 shows that Russia was the world’s second largest producer and the first net exporter of natural gas, the third largest producer of crude oil, and the sixth largest producer and third net exporter of coal. Turkmenistan remained the sixth largest net exporter of natural gas and Kazakhstan the eighth largest net exporter of coal. 

	TPES (excluding electricity trade)	Production
1971	854.8487	969.9544
1972	899.1282	1011.885
1973	943.971	1060.755
1974	989.5253	1120.22
1975	1044.193856	1192.729543
1976	1087.403572	1251.005332
1977	1130.273818	1308.21877
1978	1176.482539	1354.821723
1979	1215.793	1397.879
1980	1242.57391	1441.3416
1981	1257.177642	1467.904416
1982	1286.87669	1502.55326
1983	1308.19699	1529.41683
1984	1349.193	1570.974
1985	1390.632	1606.45
1986	1418.602	1670.183
1987	1475.841	1721.254
1988	1516.212	1770.51
1989	1502.463	1753.435
1990	1513.239	1740.007
1991	1477.995	1640.538
1992	1333.752	1522.61
1993	1239.421	1427.927
1994	1091.506	1312.599
1995	1062.048	1280.707
1996	1038.123	1272.768
1997	994.2548	1231.491
1998	973.6562	1238.451
1999	981.0795	1270.451
2000	993.0349	1321.907
2001	1002.515	1363.053
2002	1012.441	1415.35
2003	1049.865	1504.762
2004	1063.326	1573.557
2005	1066.364	1617.262
2006	1096.152	1664.758
2007	1107.702	1704.71
2008	1126.931	1744.195
2009	1037.625	1652.426
2010	1108.603	1756.735
2011	1146.265	1803.725
2012	1155.911	1823.796
2013	1123.373	1849.443
2014	1109.698	1827.117
2015	1080.617	1832.266
2016	1101.767	1857.418
2017	1123.503	1923.766
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Middle East


Over the last four decades, total final consumption in the Middle East expanded in all sectors, particularly industry and transport, which increased twenty fold.

In 2017 oil accounted for around 95%, 25% and 15% of final consumption in transport, industry and residential, respectively. Oil is responsible for almost half of total energy consumption in the Middle East. Also in 2017, natural gas met 62.7% and 46.1% of final consumption in industry and residential, respectively. Electricity tripled its share in final energy consumption from 5.6% in 1971 to 15.4% in 2017.

	Oil	Natural gas	Electricity	Other
	6.164363	4.245916	0.679106	0.069939
	90.19834	118.4979	15.25273	2.920475
	6.701405	0	0	0
	127.0716	6.873392	0.040974	0
	3.899274	0	0.3908	0.150965
	13.14868	40.1331	33.23148	0.5485
	1.949085	1.344175	0.384609	0.08791
	5.019483	11.8594	27.40056	0.494625
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