Sustainable Development Goal 7
Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all
The International Energy Agency is at the forefront of global efforts to assess and analyse persistent energy access deficit, providing annual country-by-country data on access to electricity and clean cooking (SDG 7.1) and the main data source for tracking official progress towards SDG targets on renewables (SDG 7.2) and energy efficiency (SDG 7.3).
The adoption of the new United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2015 marked a new level of political recognition of the importance of energy to development. For the first time, this included a target to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all – collectively known as Sustainable Development Goal 7, or SDG 7.
In support of these efforts, the IEA developed the Sustainable Development Scenario (SDS) in World Energy Outlook 2017. The SDS combines ambitious climate policy (SDG 13) with significant action on achieving energy access (SDG 7.1) and creating cleaner air (SDG 3) – an integrated approach that speaks to energy policy priorities in a very wide range of countries. The IEA is also the lead custodian agency for SDG 7.2 on renewable energy and 7.3 on energy efficiency in addition to being custodian of SDG target 12.c, which aims to rationalise inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption.
Read on to explore the IEA's latest data and analysis on targets under Sustainable Developement Goals 7.1, 7.2 and 7.3.
Access to electricity
In 2018, the number of people without electricity access dropped to 860 million, a record in recent years. However, progress continues to be uneven, with 80% of the 800 million people who gained access since 2010 concentrated in Asia. Efforts should step up in Africa if we are to reach universal access to electricity by 2030.
Access to clean cooking
Over 2.6 billion people do not have access to clean cooking facilities, relying instead on solid biomass, kerosene or coal as their primary cooking fuel. This figure has been gradually decreasing from 2.9 billion in 2010, but efforts need to dramatically accelerate to put the world on track for universal access by 2030.
In 2017, the share of modern renewables reached over 10% of total final energy consumption, having steadily increased since the 2000s. Nonetheless, faster progress is needed to realise a substantial increase in the share of renewable energy, as set out in SDG target 7.2.
Thanks to an increase in the scope of public policies, recent progress in energy intensity has been promising. Yet, this is not sufficient to put the world on track for the 2030 Sustainable Development Goal 7.3 target.
Tracking Energy Transitions
Explore the rest of the IEA's comprehensive tracking efforts, featuring the very latest data and rigorous analysis across all fuels and all technologies.