IEA (2011), "Technology Roadmap - Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles", IEA, Paris https://www.iea.org/reports/technology-roadmap-electric-and-plug-in-hybrid-electric-vehicles
Electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EVs and PHEVs), if coupled with low greenhouse gas (GHG) electricity generation, can help cut energy (particularly petroleum) use and CO2 significantly, especially in the 2030-50 timeframe – but key actions must begin now to achieve interim targets and, thus, substantial market shares in the long-term. The vision of this roadmap is to achieve widespread adoption and use of EVs and PHEVs worldwide by 2050, and if possible well before. The primary role of this EV/PHEV Roadmap is to help establish a vision for technology deployment; set approximate, feasible targets; and identify steps required to get there. It also outlines the role for different stakeholders and how they can work together to reach common objectives, and the role for government policy to support the process. The analysis in the roadmap is based on the IEA ETP 2DS scenario, updated in the IEA report Transport, Energy and CO2: Moving Toward Sustainability (Autumn, 2009). This scenario targets a 50% reduction in CO2 worldwide by 2050 relative to 2005 levels. For transport, a 30% reduction is achieved via efficiency improvements, along with the introduction of new types of vehicles and fuels. For EVs and PHEVs, sales begin to grow rapidly after 2015 and reach a combined 7 million per year by 2020, and 100 million by 2050, over half of all cars sold around the world in that year.