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IEA member country public budgets for energy research, development and demonstration (RD&D) increased by 6% in 2020 to an estimated USD 23.1 billion1. This was the fourth consecutive yearly increase after five years of decline; the 2020 level was 40% higher than in 2008 although still lower than the 2009 peak.

Total public energy RD&D budget for 

In Purchasing Power Parity terms, the United States and Japan spent the most on energy RD&D among IEA member countries, followed by France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Canada, Korea, Italy and the Netherlands. The figures below also include the European Union’s energy RD&D budget under its Horizon 2020 programme, which is larger than that of all but three IEA member countries: the United States, Japan and France.

Total public energy RD&D budgets by country for 2020 or latest available year


Public energy RD&D budgets by country for IEA members and the European union, 2020


Public energy RD&D budget per unit of GDP varied greatly among IEA member countries, ranging from 0.03 to 1.10 per thousand unit of GDP in 2020. Norway had the highest level (1.10), followed by France (0.70). Other leading countries were Belgium (0.63), Canada (0.62) and Finland (0.61).

Total public energy RD&D budgets per thousand units of GDP by country for 2020

  1. All data in this publication are expressed in 2020 prices and in terms of purchasing power parity, or PPP, unless otherwise specified. The total IEA budget does not include the European Union funding under the Horizon 2020 programme (USD 2.1 billion in 2020).