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In the IEA1, the transport sector as a whole accounted for the highest share of final energy consumption2 in 2019 (36%), followed by manufacturing industry (23%) and the residential sector (20%).

Largest end uses of energy by sector, selected IEA countries, 2019


Passenger cars alone used more energy than the whole residential sector and together with freight road vehicles accounted for almost a third of final energy-related CO2 emissions. Transport’s position as the leading overall consumer is driven by United States, Japan and Canada, in large extent, due to higher per-capita distances travelled and the use of larger vehicles.

Top ten CO2-emitting end uses in selected IEA countries, 2019


The manufacturing sector, driven by basic metals and chemicals, shows large shares in Belgium, Slovak Republic, Korea and Japan; while the residential sector, with energy use dominated by space heating and appliances, had the largest share mainly in European countries.

Residential sector

In almost all IEA countries, emissions for both residential space heating and appliances were larger than those of any manufacturing sub-sector. In some countries, like the Czech Republic, space heating was the single largest emitting end use.

Space heating accounted for more than half of IEA energy consumption in the residential sector, with the highest shares in European countries (81% in Denmark, 73% in Belgium, and 72% in Hungary) and typically the lowest shares in Asia and Oceania (Japan 26% and New Zealand 33%).

Shares of residential energy consumption by end use in selected IEA countries, 2019


Energy efficiency for space heating has improved across IEA countries, mostly due to better insulation of buildings, refurbishment of old buildings, and improvements in heating equipment. The data shows that residential space heating intensity – defined as energy consumption per floor area – has significantly decreased in most IEA countries. For instance, Australia, France, Portugal and Switzerland have experienced reductions of over 35% since 2000.

Warmer countries generally have lower space heating intensities.

Energy intensity of residential space heating in selected IEA countries, 2000 vs. 2019

Industry and services

In the IEA, the largest energy-consuming manufacturing sub-sectors3 in 2019 were basic metals (26%) and chemicals (23%), followed by paper and printing (12%) and food and tobacco (10%).

In terms of the structure of the manufacturing sector, the sub-sector with the largest value added was machinery4 (33%), followed by transport equipment (15%) and chemicals (14%).

Manufacturing energy consumption and value added by sub-sector in selected IEA countries, 2019


The intensity of manufacturing sub-sectors (energy consumption per value added) varies greatly. Within manufacturing, basic metals and paper and printing are the most energy intensive sub-sectors, while machinery is the least intensive. The energy intensity of services is lower than that of all manufacturing sub-sectors.

Manufacturing and services, selected energy intensities in selected IEA countries, 2019


A country’s manufacturing energy intensity depends on the relative weight of different sub-sectors in its manufacturing mix. For example, intensity is particularly high in countries like Finland, where the energy-intensive paper and printing industry accounted for about 60% of total manufacturing energy consumption in 2019.

Energy intensity of manufacturing in selected IEA countries, 2000 vs. 2019


Manufacturing intensity has decreased over time in most IEA countries. For example, in the United States it decreased 46% between 2000 and 2019, due to efficiency improvements mainly in chemicals and basic metals, but also because of increasing shares of less intensive sub-sectors, such as machinery.

Changes over time in the importance of different manufacturing sectors can significantly affect overall intensity, as does a change in the economic structure from manufacturing to services. It is essential to identify and distinguish the effects of structural change from energy efficiency.


Energy consumption for transport5 in the IEA is dominated by road vehicles (88%), with passenger cars and freight road together representing about 85%. Domestic air travel accounts for 8%; domestic water and rail transport account together for roughly 4%.

Energy consumption in transport in IEA countries, 2019


Across IEA countries, motor gasoline6 remains the dominant fuel for passenger cars even though the share of diesel increased from 6% in 2000 to 16% in 2019. Diesel dominates freight road energy consumption in all countries.

Energy consumption in road transport by source, 2000 vs. 2019


Passenger transport intensity (energy per passenger-kilometre) indicates the amount of energy used to move one passenger over a distance of one km. Intensity levels vary across countries depending on the share of modes (e.g. road, air, water, rail), the vehicle types in the mix (e.g. passenger cars, buses, etc.) and the average occupancy (passengers per vehicle) – which in many countries has decreased over time.

Passenger transport intensity is particularly high in countries like the United States, due to large use of passenger cars (with a high share of Sport Utility Vehicles, or SUVs) and domestic flights, compared to more efficient transportation such as buses and trains. Conversely, it is lower in countries like France, where rail transport is more common.

Passenger transport intensity has been decreasing in most countries due to modal shift (e.g. from cars to trains) and improvements in passenger cars efficiency, like in the United Kingdom (-27% from 2000 to 2019). However, improvements have been partly offset by lower occupancy of vehicles.

Energy intensity of passenger transport in selected IEA countries, 2000 vs. 2019

Notes and references
  1. For the charts in this section, "IEA countries" refers to twenty-four IEA member countries for which data covering most end-uses area available: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States. These countries represented about 92% of the total IEA final energy consumption for 2019.

  2. In this publication, for the purposes of studying energy efficiency, final energy consumption is computed to include oil and gas extraction; coal mining; blast furnaces and coke ovens energy and transformation losses; and to exclude non-energy use, military consumption, and pipeline transport. This definition differs from that in the energy balances.

  3. In this publication, the services sector is analysed together with industry due to limitations in end-use data availability. Industry includes manufacturing industry, agriculture/fishing, mining and construction.

  4. Includes ISIC Divisions 25-28: Manufacture of fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment; manufacture of computer, electronic and optical products; manufacture of electrical equipment; manufacture of machinery and equipment not elsewhere specified. 

  5. Transport excludes international aviation, marine bunkers and pipeline transport.

  6. In this publication, gasoline and diesel include the biofuel components.