CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion 2019

An essential tool for analysts and policy makers
In this report

In recognition of the fundamental importance of understanding energy related environmental issues, the IEA CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion provides a full analysis of emissions stemming from energy use. This annual publication has become an essential tool for analysts and policy makers in many international fora. The data in this book are designed to assist in understanding the evolution of the emissions of CO2 from 1971 to 2017 for 150 countries and regions by sector and by fuel. Emissions were calculated using IEA energy databases and the default methods and emission factors from the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.

Data service

CO2 emissions from fuel combustion are affected by a range of drivers, including population growth, GDP and energy supply. CO2 emissions from electricity generation, around 40% of the total, are driven by electricity output, generation efficiency, share and carbon intensity of fossil generation. Explore how these factors have affected emissions across a range of countries and regions in our interactive below:

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After three years of stability, global CO2 emissions from fuel combustion started rising again in 2017, reaching 32.8 billion tons. Provisional data show they grew even faster in 2018, with robust economic growth and the slowdown in renewables penetration more than offsetting some improvement in energy productivity.

All values up to 2017 for World and 2018 for OECD are based on CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion 2019. The 2018 value for World is based on IEA Global Energy & CO2 Status Report 2019.

CO2 emissions from fuel combustion, 2000-2018


As has been the case for the last several years, growth in 2017 and 2018 was largely due to non-OECD countries, mainly South-East Asia and Middle East. Non-OECD countries as a whole showed growth rates higher than 2% for both years and exceeded 20 billion tons in 2018.

With changes ten times greater than in the OECD, non–OECD emissions are rapidly approaching twice the emissions levels of the OECD.

Annual change in CO2 emissions for OECD and non-OECD countries, 2014-2018


Electricity/heat generation and transport account for two thirds of total CO2 emissions and were equally responsible of almost the entire global growth in emissions since 2010; the remaining third is split between industry and buildings.

The picture changes after reallocating emissions from power generation to the final sectors: industry accounts for slightly less than one half of total emissions, buildings and transport for one quarter each. The buildings sector uses one half of the electricity that is consumed globally (21 000 TWh), industry the other half; transport is not yet visibly electrified.

Global CO2 emissions by sector, 2017