Technology Roadmap: Low-Carbon Technology for the Indian Cement Industry
The Indian cement industry is one of the most efficient in the world. Its efforts to reduce its carbon footprint by adopting the best available technologies and environmental practices are reflected in the achievement of reducing total CO2 emissions to an industrial average of 0.719 tCO2/t cement in 2010 from a substantially higher level of 1.12 tCO2/t cement in 1996. However, because the manufacturing process relies on the burning of limestone, it still produced 137 MtCO2 in 2010 – approximately 7% of India’s total man-made CO2 emissions.
Yet opportunity for improvement exists, particularly in relation to five key levers that can contribute to emissions reductions: alternative fuel and raw materials; energy efficiency; clinker substitution; waste heat recovery and newer technologies. This roadmap sets out one pathway by which the Indian cement industry can reach its targets to improve energy efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions by 2050, thereby laying the foundation for low-carbon growth in the years beyond.
The Technology Roadmap: Low-Carbon Technology for the Indian Cement Industry builds on the global IEA technology roadmap for the cement sector developed by the IEA and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development’s Cement Sustainability Initiative. It outlines a possible transition path for the Indian cement industry to reduce its direct CO2 emissions intensity to 0.35 tCO2/t cement and support the global goal of halving CO2 emissions by 2050
- The Indian cement industry has already achieved a reduction in total CO2 emissions to an industrial average of 0.719 tCO2/t cement from a substantially higher level of 1.12 tCO2/t cement in 1996.
- In the absence of appropriate technology development or policy actions, CO2 emissions from the Indian cement industry are projected to reach between 488 MtCO2 (Low-Demand Case) and 835 MtCO2 (High- Demand Case) by 2050.
- The technologies, policy frameworks and investment needs outlined in this roadmap could limit the potential increase of CO2 emissions to between 275 MtCO2 and 468 MtCO2 by 2050.
- The milestones set out in this roadmap for the Indian cement industry would contribute to enhanced energy security by saving between 377 petajoules (PJ) and 485 PJ of energy in 2050 compared to a business-as-usual scenario.
- Key levers to reduce emissions in the Indian cement industry are: increased rates of blending and alternative fuel/raw materials (AFR) use, widespread implementation of waste heat recovery (WHR) systems and a radical step change in new technology development.
- To ensure widespread deployment and implementation of such technologies in the future, social acceptance, political will and policy development, and financial mechanisms, must be supportive.
- The additional investment required to reach emissions reduction envisioned in this roadmap is between USD 29 and USD 50 billion (INR 145 000 crore and INR 250 000 crore), or 15% to 25% higher than in a business-as-usual scenario. Such investments need to be designed effectively and put in place at the early design stage of a new cement plant.
- Technology Roadmap – Low-Carbon Technology for the Indian Cement Industry (report | foldout)
- Technology Roadmap - Carbon Capture and Storage 2013 (report)
- Technology Roadmap - Carbon Capture and Storage 2009 (English - report | foldout) (Chinese - report)
- Technology Roadmap - Carbon Capture and Storage in Industrial Applications (English - report | foldout) (Chinese - report | foldout)
- Technology Roadmap - Cement (English - report | foldout) (Chinese - report | foldout)
Acknowledgement of stakeholder participation
The development of this roadmap would not have been possible without financial support from the International Finance Corporation. We want to thank this organisation for its support and guidance. The IEA and WBCSD would also like to thank the industry, governments and non-governments experts who attended meetings, reviewed and commented on drafts and provided guidance. As well as the individuals listed below, who joined meetings on the roadmap throughout its development, two online consultations took place for the technical papers and for the roadmap, and additional stakeholders commented on the drafts during those processes.
List of participants – Mumbai and Delhi Stakeholder dialogue on low-carbon growth (June 2011 - Technology Roadmap - Cement in India - Mumbai meeting participantsTechnology Roadmap - Cement in India - Delhi meeting participants)
List of participants – Delhi Stakeholder dialogue on policy and financing (January 2012 - Technology Roadmap - Cement in India - Delhi policy an finance dialogue participants list)
The Technology Roadmap: Low-Carbon Technology for the Indian Cement Industry is a compilation of IEA and WBCSD’s interpretation of the workshops, with additional information incorporated to provide a more complete picture to all issues discussed. It does not necessarily represent the view of the workshop participants or the funders.
Related publications and papers:
- Existing and Potential Technologies for Carbon Emissions Reductions in the Indian Cement Industry – A set of technical papers produced for the project ‘Low Carbon Technology Roadmap for the Indian Cement Industry’
- Technology papers for the Indian cement industry - looking behind the data (ECRA 2012)
- Energy Transition for Industry: India and the Global Context
- Energy Technology Transition for Industry: Strategies for the next industrial revolution
- Energy Technology Perspectives 2012: Pathway to a clean energy system