Following two years of public debate, the Energy Policy Framework promulgated in July 2005 establishes four broad goals for French energy policy over the next decades:
- To contribute to domestic energy independence and guarantee the security of energy supply
- To ensure a competitive energy market
- To preserve the health of the public and the environment, particularly while fighting the greenhouse effect
- To guarantee social and territorial cohesion by ensuring common access to energy.
These objectives fix the direction of French energy policy for the next 30 years. To meet these goals regardless of future economics, the French government seeks to:
- Manage domestic energy demand
- Diversify the sources of energy supply
- Develop new energy technology
- Ensure the networks of transport and energy storage
To guide the application of this framework, France has set for itself quantitative goals and defined several programs to promote energy efficiency and renewable energy:
- Support for the international objective of a reduction by half of the worlds greenhouse gas emissions before 2050. For France, among other industrialized nations, this entails an emissions reduction of 4 to 5 times current levels.
- The annual reduction between now and 2015 of French energy intensity by 2%, and between now and 2030 by 2.5%
- Renewable energies satisfaction of 10% of French energy demand by 2010. Specifically, this entails the development of thermic energy sources by 50% before 2010 and the fuel mix incorporation of biofuels by 2% before 2006 and 5.75% before 2011.
- Establishment of 3 principle programs of energy efficiency and renewable energy development:
1. Energy For Development: to extend access to energy services to developing nations
2. Southern Face: to encourage the installation of 200,000 solar water-heaters and 50,000 solar roofs each year from 2010
3. Earth Energy: to have reduced French oil imports by at least 10 million tonnes in 2010 by replacing such fuel needs with heat and fuel produced from biomass.
Nuclear: The Energy Framework rests on the maintenance of Frances nuclear power, and establishes plans to construct new nuclear reactors.
Energy Technology R&D: The government will publish its domestic research strategy, to be revised every 5 years, and report each year to the Parliament regarding development of renewable energies and energy efficiency programs. To enact its policies of energy efficiency and technology R&D, the French government has endowed the National Research Agency with €350 million and the Industrial Innovation Agency with €1 billion in 2005. These grants fund the development of energy-efficient technology and a sweeping industrial policy.
New Practical Measures The 2005 Energy Framework contains several practical measures to realise Frances general energy goals. Beyond the transposition of many of the EUs legislative Directives (in particular, 2002/91/CE on the energy performance of buildings and 2004/101/EC, the EUs Linking Directive), the French goverment has established several domestic programs:
- White Certificate Program to encourage energy efficiency among firms in the energy sector. Under such a scheme, participants must identify potential efficiencies within the energy supply chain.
- Support for regional and municipal programs of energy management, especially when conducted in aggregate.
- Information campaigns targetting both schoolchildren and consumers, coupled with new regulations requiring energy providers to publicize energy efficient aspects of their commerce.
- Creation of a guarantee of origin system for renewable energy. For hydropower, a law favoring low-volume turbines and a feed-in tariff for thus-produced power. For wind energy, an extension of already-favorable financial treatment and a close examination of sites for future expansion. For geothermal energy, a multi-year investment program.
- Measures to guarantee the supply of electricity and gas.
- Multiple end-uses