The authority for all EU-wide energy labelling activities comes from a framework directive (Council Directive 92/75/EEC) agreed to 1992. The labelling specifications are spelled out in individual implementing directives for each product type. The first implementing directive, for refrigerators, was issued in January 1994 and took effect in January 1995. To date, implementing directives have been issued for: - Refrigerators/Freezers (94/2/EC) Issued: 21 January 1994; Effective: 1 January 1995 updated in 2003 (2003/66/EC) - Washing machines (95/12/EC) Issued: 23 May 1995; Effective: 1 April 1996 - Tumble dryers (95/13/EC) Issued: 23 May 1995; Effective: 1 April 1996 - Combined washer-dryers (96/60/EC) Issued: 19 September 1996; Effective: 1 August 1997 - Dishwashers (97/17/EC, amended by 1999/9/EC) Issued: 16 April 1997; Effective: 1 July 1998 - Lamps (98/11/EC) Issued: 27 January 1998; Effective: 1 July 1999 - Air conditioners (2002/31/EC) Issued: - 2002; Effective: ? - Electric ovens (2002/40/EC) Issued: - 2002; Effective: ? The labelling requirements only become mandatory in Member States when the governments have transposed the directives into national law. It is the responsibility of each individual Member State to translate directives into law, take all necessary measures to ensure that all suppliers and dealers in their territory fulfil their obligations and ensure that the labelling scheme is accompanied by educational and promotional information campaigns aimed at encouraging more responsible use of energy by private customers.