In February 2008 the European Commission officially launched the Clean Sky Joint Technology Initiative (JTI) to stimulate research, development and deployment of technology to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from aviation. The European Commission is contributing approximately half of the funding for the project, which involves major industry partners such as EADS, SAFRAN, and SAAB AB. Objectives include developing technologies that will allow reductions in aviation CO2 emissions by 50% through fuel efficiencies, reductions in nitrous oxide (NOx) emissions by 80%, and reductions in noise by 50%, all by 2020. The public-private partnership also seeks to establish a "green" product life cycle, from the design to the disposal/recycling of materials and components. Six Integrated Technology Demonstrators (ITDs) have been targeted: Smart fixed-wing aircraft: Focus will be put on two major objectives, first an innovative "smart wing" design and the integration of novel engine concepts, including the resulting modifications of the aircraft. The goal is to reduce the medium- and long-range aircraft fuel burn and emissions by around 10% to 20% and noise by 5 to 10dB. Green regional aircraft: The objective is to validate and demonstrate the technologies best fitting the pollution and noise reduction goals set for the regional aircraft that will enter the market in the 2020s. This includes using new structures and materials to reduce weight, configurations for low aerodynamic noise, and the integration of technologies developed in other ITDs. Green rotorcraft: Rotorcrafts are flying machines that use rotorblades, such as helicopters and gyroplanes. The Rotorcraft ITD will deliver innovative rotor blades and novel turbine engine installation for noise reduction. The demonstration of diesel engine integration, airframe drag minimisation features and advanced electrical systems will enable the reduction of fuel consumption and elimination of noxious hydraulic fluids. Sustainable and green engines: This ITD will work on engine design, to work on noise reduction, NOx emissions reductions, and reduced fuel use. System for green operations: This ITD will create value for improved aircraft operation through the management of aircraft energy and the management of mission and trajectory. Eco-design: This ITD will implement a strategy for design, development, manufacturing, use and recycling, covering air frame and systems. The Clean Sky initiative will run as part of the European Commission's Seventh Research Framework Programme and involves 54 corporations (including SMEs), 15 research centres and 17 universities.