Global Energy & CO2 Status Report

The latest trends in energy and emissions in 2018

This online, annual report provides a snapshot of recent global trends and developments across fuels, renewable sources, and energy efficiency and carbon emissions, in 2018.


Data tables


Browse the full data tables below, or download the Excel file.

Global energy demand and electricity generation by source

Energy Demand (Mtoe)Growth Rate (%)Shares (%)
 20182017-201820002018
Total Primary Energy Demand 14 301 2.3% 100% 100%
Coal 3 778 0.7% 23% 26%
Oil 4 488 1.3% 36% 31%
Gas 3 253 4.6% 21% 23%
Nuclear  710 3.3% 7% 5%
Hydro  364 3.1% 2% 3%
Biomass and waste 1 418 2.5% 10% 10%
Other renewables  289 14.0% 1% 2%

Electricity Generation (TWh)Growth Rate (%)Shares (%)
 20182017-201820002018
Total Generation 26 672 4.0% 100% 100%
Coal 10 116 2.6% 39% 38%
Oil  903 -3.9% 8% 3%
Gas 6 091 4.0% 18% 23%
Nuclear 2 724 3.3% 17% 10%
Hydro 4 239 3.1% 17% 16%
Biomass and waste  669 7.4% 1% 3%
Wind 1 217 12.2% 0% 5%
Solar photovoltaics  570 31.2% 0% 2%
Other renewables  144 4.2% 0% 1%

Energy related CO2 emissions from fuel combustion by regions

Total CO2 emissions (Mt CO2)Growth Rate (%)
 20182017-2018
United States 4 888 3.1%
China 9 481 2.5%
India 2 299 4.8%
Europe 3 956 -1.3%
Rest of world 11 249 1.1%
World 33 143 1.7%

Regional summary

Total Primary Energy Demand (Mtoe)Growth Rate (%)
 20182017-2018
United States 2 227 3.7%
China 3 155 3.5%
India  933 4.0%
Europe 2 010 0.2%
Rest of world 5 568 1.8%
World 14 302 2.3%

Oil Primary Energy Demand (mb/d)Growth Rate (%)
 20182017-2018
United States   20 2.7%
China  13 3.5%
India  5 4.5%
Europe  15 0.1%
Rest of world  46 0.2%
World  99 1.3%

Gas Primary Energy Demand (Bcm)Growth Rate (%)
 20182017-2018
United States  854 10.5%
China  279 17.7%
India  60 4.7%
Europe  599 -1.9%
Rest of world 2 137 2.8%
World 3 928 4.6%

Coal Primary Energy Demand (Mtce)Growth Rate (%)
 20182017-2018
United States  451 -4.5%
China 2 771 1.0%
India  600 5.0%
Europe  462 -2.6%
Rest of world 1 113 1.4%
World 5 397 0.7%

Renewables-based generation (TWh)Growth Rate (%)
 20182017-2018
United States  744 4.1%
China 1 854 10.9%
India  291 10.6%
Europe 1 462 8.5%
Rest of world 2 449 4.0%
World 6 800 7.1%

Energy Intensity improvements (toe per $1000,PPP)Y-on-Y change (%)
 20182017-2018
United States 0.112 0.8%
China 0.125 -2.9%
India 0.092 -3.1%
Europe 0.079 -1.6%
Rest of world 0.109 -1.1%
World 0.108 -1.3%

Notes


Sources: Data for energy demand, gross electricity generation and CO2 emissions from fuel combustion are based on IEA estimates derived from a number of sources, including the latest monthly data submissions to the IEA’s Energy Data Centre, other statistical releases from national administrations, and recent market data from the IEA Market Report Series that cover coal, oil, natural gas, renewables and power. These are based on information available up to March 2019.

Definitional note 1: Energy demand, electricity and CO2 emissions tables

  • Total primary energy demand (TPED) is equivalent to power generation plus “other energy sector” excluding electricity and heat, plus total final consumption (TFC) excluding electricity and heat. Electricity generation data are provided on a gross basis (i.e. includes own use by the generator).   
  • CO2 emissions and energy demand from international marine and aviation bunkers are included only at the World level. CO2 emissions do not include emissions from industrial waste and non-renewable municipal waste.

Definitional note 2: Fossil fuel demand tables

  • Oil demand is expressed in million barrels per day (mb/d). In the oil primary energy demand table, oil demand refers to total liquids, including biofuels.
  • Natural gas demand is expressed in billion cubic metres (bcm).
  • Coal demand is expressed in million tonnes of coal equivalent (Mtce).
  • World includes both international marine and aviation fuels bunkers.

Definitional note 3: Economic growth assumptions

  • 2017 and 2018 GDP PPP growth based on IMF global economic trends: “World Economic Outlook Update, January 2019: A Weakening Global Expansion"