IEA, Total public energy RD&D budgets by country for 2020 or latest available year, IEA, Paris https://www.iea.org/data-and-statistics/charts/total-public-energy-rd-and-d-budgets-by-country-for-2020-or-latest-available-year
Based on 2020 for Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Lithuania, Mexico, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Sweden, Switzerland, the United States and the European Union. Based on 2019 data for Australia, Austria, Finland, France, Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain and the United Kingdom. For the other countries, data refer to 2018. No recent data were available for Greece and Luxembourg. Data for the United States were estimated by IEA Secretariat. European Union refers to the European Union budget under Horizon 2020, and not to the sum of national budgets of European Union member countries.
* Lithuania is seeking accession to full IEA membership and Brazil is an IEA association country.
Solar generation absorption with limited flexibility, projections for 2030