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IEA Publications published in: 2014

More info about this title Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Luxembourg -- 2014 Review, 122 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-21139-1, paper €75, PDF €60 (2014)
IEA country reviews are only available in PDF format. We no longer offer printed copies.

Since 2008, Luxembourg’s energy policy has focused on mitigating CO2 emissions in transport and industry and on supporting renewable energies and energy efficiency towards 2020. Luxembourg’s greenhouse gas emissions have stabilised as energy-intensive industries have scaled back their activities and the government put strong energy efficiency policies in place, notably for buildings. Since 2009, the country’s research and development (R&D) policies have promoted eco-innovation and clean energy technologies. In 2012, government spending on energy R&D as a ratio of gross domestic product was the highest among IEA members. Luxembourg is creating a national platform for smart meters and electric vehicles, the first of its kind country-wide roll out.

Nonetheless, Luxembourg faces several energy challenges. Oil consumption in transport is rising because of growing road fuel sales, largely the result of tax differences to neighbouring countries. This increases Luxembourg’s emissions and its oil stockholding needs. Because the country imports all of its energy needs, energy security is a priority. Luxembourg has sought to address this through greater regional integration such as merging its gas market with Belgium and increasing its electricity interconnection with France and Belgium. Yet the benefits of regional integration of wholesale energy markets have not yet translated to retail markets. Moreover, as regional electricity trade grows and neighbouring countries introduce ambitious decarbonisation policies and capacity markets, Luxembourg will need to define its priorities for an energy strategy through 2030.

This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing Luxembourg and provides recommendations for each sector. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future and the development of its 2030 energy strategy.
More info about this title Medium-Term Oil Market Report 2014 -- Market Analysis and Forecasts to 2019, 168 pages, ISBN Print 978-92-64-21171-1, PDF 978-92-64-21172-8, paper €100, PDF €80 (2014)
Type: Studies
Subject: Oil
Subscribers to the monthly Oil Market Report get free access to the PDF version of this publication. You can subscribe to the Oil Market Report through the following link: http://www.iea.org/w/omrss/default.aspx
To purchase the Medium-Term Oil Market Report 2014 separately please place your order on this page.


The non-conventional supply revolution that is transforming the North American oil patch has been widely recognised as a game changer for the oil markets and industry, but how is this transformation playing out against the backdrop of other relevant market developments?

How long can the US oil boom be expected to last, and what will it take for other countries to replicate this success story?

What is holding up OPEC supply growth, and what will OPEC production capacity look like by the end of the decade?

How will the market absorb growing condensate and natural gas liquids supplies in the United States and elsewhere?

Will the recovery in global oil demand gain momentum, or is “peak demand” around the corner?

Is oil losing its grip on transport fuels?

Is US progress towards oil independence a step forward or a step back for crude markets? What about Middle East downstream forays?

Who will be the winners and losers of global refining capacity growth, and how will it affect the way refined products are delivered to consumers?

These are just some of the questions addressed in the 2014 edition of the Medium-Term Oil Market Report (MTOMR). As the supply revolution enters a new phase, oil’s role in the global energy mix is being redefined. More than ever, getting a handle on these developments is key to ensuring that energy security is maintained or enhanced, investment is appropriately targeted and resources are optimally leveraged. That makes the MTOMR’s insights into the oil market for the next five years essential reading for energy industry and market stakeholders, policy makers and all those interested in energy and the broader economy.
More info about this title Russia 2014 -- Energy Policies Beyond IEA Countries, 316 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-21150-6, paper €75, PDF €60 (2014)
Type: Country Reviews
Subject: Non-OECD Countries
IEA country reviews are only available in PDF format. We no longer offer printed copies.

Russia’s energy sector plays an essential role for the Russian economy, its energy security and global hydrocarbon supplies. Russia holds among the world’s largest resources of gas, oil and coal. Its liquids production has reached historical highs, yet major additional upstream investments and technology upgrades will be needed to sustain these levels in the long term. Its gas production is also at high levels, with Gazprom being the dominant producer, and with other companies now taking significant roles. Since the last IEA review of Russia’s energy policies in 2002, the power sector has also liberalised considerably.

The Russian economy remains largely inefficient, with twice as much energy used per GDP compared with IEA member countries. Ambitious energy efficiency policies have been introduced but have not led to significant improvements so far. At the same time, the electricity and district heating infrastructure is ageing and requires rapid investments. Attracting these investments from private domestic and foreign companies will require further regulatory, tariff and fiscal changes as well as a strong focus on policy implementation. Russia’s overall energy sector would benefit considerably from a more competitive, market-oriented environment.

While a number of policies aimed at modernising the energy sector and increasing its efficiency and sustainability are being developed or implemented, further reforms are needed. In 2014, Russia is preparing a new Energy Strategy to 2035 – offering a timely look at these challenges and opportunities.

This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing Russia and provides critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more sustainable energy future.
More info about this title Medium-Term Gas Market Report 2014 -- Market Analysis and Forecasts to 2019, 212 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-21153-7, paper €100, PDF €80 (2014)
Type: Studies
Subject: Natural Gas ; Statistics ; Industry ; Investment
Global natural gas demand grew just 1.2% in 2013, underperforming other fuels, because of a slow economy, supply constraints, sluggish LNG trade, and competition from coal and renewables in the power sector. Growth in non-OECD countries, which had buoyed global demand over the past decade, retreated to nearly the same pace as in OECD countries. Without the effect of colder weather in OECD countries, demand there would have actually fallen and global demand would have been unchanged.

The IEA Medium-Term Gas Market Report 2014 gives a detailed analysis of demand, supply and trade developments as well as infrastructure investments to meet the 2.2% annual growth in gas demand expected through 2019. It investigates the important changes that will transform the industry: rising regional disparities between gas-hungry regions such as China and the Middle East against weakening growth in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and Europe; competition between FSU supplies and LNG from the United States and Australia, notably in Europe and Asia; the shift towards net imports in non-OECD Asia and Latin America; and uncertainty over whether Europe can ease its dependency on Russian gas. Besides enhanced coverage of gas in the power sector, this year’s report features special focuses on the potential of gas in maritime transport; the competition between oil and gas to meet fast-growing power consumption in the Middle East; the implications of Iran’s possible return to the international gas scene; and the interplay of natural gas liquids and natural gas in the United States.
More info about this title Oil Information 2014 -- with 2013 data, 746 pages, paper €165, PDF €132, CD-ROM €550 (2014)
Type: Statistics Publication and CD-ROMs
Subject: Oil ; Statistics
A comprehensive reference book on current developments in oil supply and demand. The first part of this publication contains key data on world production, trade, prices and consumption of major oil product groups, with time series back to the early 1970s.

The second part gives a more detailed and comprehensive picture of oil supply, demand, trade, production and consumption by end-user for each OECD country individually and for the OECD regions.

Trade data are reported extensively by origin and destination.

Oil Information is one of a series of annual IEA statistical publications on major energy sources; other reports are Coal Information, Electricity Information, Natural Gas Information and Renewables Information.
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The CD-ROM and on-line service contain detailed time series from 1960 (1971 for some countries) to 2013. End-use data are available up to 2012.
More info about this title Energy Balances of OECD Countries -- 2014 Edition, 336 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-21303-6, paper €120, PDF €96, CD-ROM €550 (2014)
Type: Statistics Publication and CD-ROMs
Subject: Statistics
This volume contains data on the supply and consumption of coal, oil, gas, electricity, heat, renewables and waste presented as comprehensive energy balances expressed in million tonnes of oil equivalent. Complete data are available for 2011 and 2012 and supply estimates are available for the most recent year (i.e.2013). Historical tables summarise production, trade and final consumption data as well as key energy and economic indicators. The book also includes definitions of products and flows, explanatory notes on the individual country data and conversion factors from original units to energy units.

More detailed data in original units are published in the 2014 edition of Energy Statistics of OECD Countries, the sister volume of this publication.

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More info about this title Energy Statistics of OECD Countries -- 2014 Edition, 431 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-21301-2, paper €120, PDF €96, CD-ROM €550 (2014)
Type: Statistics Publication and CD-ROMs
Subject: Statistics
This volume contains data on energy supply and consumption in original units for coal, oil, gas, electricity, heat, renewables and waste. Complete data are available for 2011 and 2012 and supply estimates are available for the most recent year (i.e. 2013). Historical tables summarise data on production, trade and final consumption. The book also includes definitions of products and flows and explanatory notes on the individual country data.

In the 2014 edition of Energy Balances of OECD Countries, the sister volume of this publication, the data are presented as comprehensive energy balances expressed in million tonnes of oil equivalent.
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The CD-ROM and on-line service contain detailed time series back to 1960 for most OECD Countries.
More info about this title Energy Technology Perspectives 2014 -- Harnessing Electricity's Potential, 382 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-20800-1, paper €150, PDF €120 (2014)
Special discounts:
- 30% discount for universities and non-profit organisations
- 50% discount for clients based in low income and lower middle income countries For your special discount to be set up please click on ASK FOR A DISCOUNT and follow the procedure. Please do not place your order before receiving your confirmation e-mail.

Please note that we also offer the "corporate/institutional package" which allows you to make the PDF version of the book available to all employees. For more information, please contact us at books@iea.org.


Starting from the premise that electricity will be an increasingly important vector in energy systems of the future, Energy Technology Perspectives 2014 (ETP 2014) takes a deep dive into actions needed to support deployment of sustainable options for generation, distribution and consumption. In addition to modelling the global outlook to 2050 under different scenarios for more than 500 technology options, ETP 2014 explores the possibility of “pushing the limits” in six key areas:

- Solar Power: Possibly the Dominant Source by 2050
- Natural Gas in Low-Carbon Electricity Systems
- Electrifying Transport: How Can E-mobility Replace Oil?
- Electricity Storage: Costs, Value and Competitiveness
- Attracting Finance for Low-Carbon Generation
- Power Generation in India

Since it was first published in 2006, ETP has evolved into a suite of publications that sets out pathways to a sustainable energy future in which optimal policy support and technology choices are driven by economics, energy security and environmental factors.

- Topic-specific books and papers explore particularly timely subjects or cross-cutting challenges.
- Tracking Clean Energy Progress provides a yearly snapshot of advances in diverse areas, while also showing the interplay among technologies.
- Supported by the ETP analysis, IEA Technology Roadmaps assess the potential for transformation across various technology areas, and outline actions and milestones for deployment.

Collectively, this series lays out the wide range of necessary and achievable steps that can be taken in the near and medium terms to set the stage for long-term energy policy objectives, clearly identifying the roles of energy sector players, policy makers and industry. Next editions will examine the role of technology innovation to meet climate goals (2015) and urban energy systems (2016).

Who will benefit from using ETP 2014? Past experience shows that ETP publications attract wide and varied audiences, including experts in the energy field (e.g. technology analysts and academics), policy makers and heads of governments, as well as business leaders and investors. This reflects the value of the series’ detailed and transparent quantitative modelling analysis and well–rounded commentary, which ultimately support high-level policy messages.


ETP 2014 purchase includes extensive downloadable data, figures and visualisations.
More info about this title Energy Policies of IEA Countries - The Netherlands -- 2014 Review, 204 pages, paper €75, PDF €60 (2014)
IEA country reviews are only available in PDF format. We no longer offer printed copies.

Since the last review in 2008, the Netherlands has attracted investment in oil and gas storage; coal, oil and gas import terminals; and efficient power plants. This additional capacity provides flexibility and energy security both in the Netherlands and across EU markets. The Netherlands plays an important role in Europe as a hub for global energy trade, thanks to its open market and integrated supply chains.

However, the outlook for Europe’s second-largest producer of natural gas is challenging amid declining production and uncertain prospects for unconventional gas. Developing the remaining natural gas potential, market integration, and ensuring the security of supply and resilience of energy infrastructure during the transition should be top priorities.

The Netherlands stimulates energy efficiency and innovation in energy-intensive industries along the whole supply chain, notably in the Dutch refining, petrochemical and agriculture sectors, a practice that contributes to industrial competitiveness.

Despite successful decoupling of greenhouse-gas emissions from economic growth between 1990 and 2012, however, the Netherlands remains one of the most fossil-fuel- and CO2-intensive economies among IEA member countries. In September 2013, the Netherlands reached an Energy Agreement with key stakeholders on priority actions to support sustainable economic growth through 2020. In addition to implementing the agreement, the government must set the scene for a stable policy framework up to 2030, which is also crucial for renewable energies.

The Netherlands has accelerated permit procedures for new energy infrastructure and is driving technology cost reduction with reformed renewable support. The country can benefit from further interconnections with neighbouring countries, as renewables become an integral part of wholesale and balancing electricity markets in the EU.

This review analyses the energy policy challenges currently facing the Netherlands and provides recommendations for each sector. It gives advice on implementing the Energy Agreement and how to leverage international opportunities from clean energy technologies.
More info about this title Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Austria -- 2014 Review, 148 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-20960-2, paper €75, PDF €60 (2014)
IEA country reviews are only available in PDF format. We no longer offer printed copies.

Austria's energy policy rests on three pillars – security of supply, energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. The country’s decarbonisation drive has strengthened as the economy and renewable energy use have continued to grow, while fossil fuel use has decreased. Notably, Austria has more than tripled the public funding for energy research, development and demonstration since 2007.

Greenhouse gas emissions from energy use, which peaked in 2005, still need to be reduced further, and the transport sector offers prime opportunities for this. In the context of EU negotiations on an energy and climate policy framework to 2030, Austria should develop a strategy that also integrates security of supply and internal market dimensions.

Closer cross-border integration of both electricity and natural gas markets and systems is required to build a single European market. This calls for increased co-ordination and co-operation with neighbouring countries. Austria should also encourage investment in networks, optimise demand response and integrate variable renewable energy supply in a cost-effective and market-based manner.

A well-functioning internal market can help reduce the growing concerns over energy prices and costs, both for industry and for citizens. Austria could address these concerns also by implementing more energy efficiency measures and facilitating greater retail market competition.

This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing Austria and provides sectoral studies and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.
More info about this title
World Energy Outlook 2014 -- TO BE RELEASED ON 12 NOVEMBER 2014, 600 pages, paper €135, PDF €108 (2014)
Take advantage of the above special pre-sale 10% reduction, which is valid until 12 November 2014.
The 10% pre-order discount is already included in the price on this page (135€ instead of 150€ for the paper copy). After 12 November, this publication will be sold at its regular cover price of €150 per paper copy and €120 for a PDF-1 user.


Special discounts:
- 30% discount for universities and non-profit organisations
- 50% discount for clients based in low income and lower middle income countries For your special discount to be set up please click on ASK FOR A DISCOUNT and follow the procedure. Please do not place your order before receiving your confirmation e-mail.

Please note that we also offer the "corporate/institutional package" and the "global corporate/institutional package" which are the options to make the PDF version of the book available to all employees. For more information, please contact us at weo@iea.org.


The global energy landscape is evolving at a rapid pace, reshaping long-held expectations for our energy future. The 2014 edition of the World Energy Outlook (WEO) will incorporate all the latest data and developments to produce a comprehensive and authoritative analysis of medium- and longer-term energy trends. It will complement a full set of energy projections with strategic insights into their meaning for energy security, the economy and the environment. Oil, natural gas, coal, renewables and energy efficiency will be covered, along with updates on trends in energy-related CO2 emissions, fossil-fuel and renewable energy subsidies, and universal access to modern energy services. The WEO-2014 will also provide in-depth analysis of some topical energy sector issues:

Energy sector investment: The analysis will provide a detailed assessment of current flows and future investment needs along the entire energy value chain, examining the scale of investment required and financing options. The report will also show how barriers to investment vary according to the strength of decarbonisation policies. (WEO Special Report to be released 3 June)

Africa: This continent-wide focus, paying particular attention to the energy outlook for sub-Saharan Africa, will include data and projections for the entire region as well as for its key energy-producing and consuming countries. Key elements for analysis will be the prospects for improving access to modern energy services and for developing the region’s huge resource potential in a way that contributes not only to regional and global energy balances but also to local economic and social well-being. (WEO Special Report to be released 13 October)

Nuclear power: Uncertainties continue to cloud the future for nuclear – government policy, public confidence, financing in liberalised markets, competitiveness versus other sources of generation and the looming retirement of a large fleet of older plants. The study will assess the outlook for nuclear power and its implications.
More info about this title The Power of Transformation -- Wind, Sun and the Economics of Flexible Power Systems, 238 pages, ISBN PRINT 978-92-64-20802-5 / WEB 978-92-64-20803-2, paper €100, PDF €80 (2014)
Wind power and solar photovoltaics (PV) are crucial to meeting future energy needs while decarbonising the power sector. Deployment of both technologies has expanded rapidly in recent years, one of the few bright spots in an otherwise bleak picture of clean energy progress. However, the inherent variability of wind power and solar PV raises unique and pressing questions. Can power systems remain reliable and cost-effective while supporting high shares of variable renewable energy (VRE)? And if so, how?

Based on a thorough review of the integration challenge, this publication
- gauges the economic significance of VRE integration impacts
- highlights the need for a system-wide approach to integrating high shares of VRE
- recommends how to achieve a cost-effective transformation of the power system.

This book summarises the results of the third phase of the Grid Integration of VRE (GIVAR) project, undertaken by the IEA over the past two years. It is rooted in a set of seven case studies, comprising 15 countries on four continents. It deepens the technical analysis of previous IEA work and lays out an analytical framework for understanding the economics of VRE integration impacts. Based on detailed modelling, the impact of high shares of VRE on total system costs is analysed. In addition, the four flexible resources which are available to facilitate VRE integration – generation, grid infrastructure, storage and demand side integration – are assessed in terms of their technical performance and cost-effectiveness.
More info about this title Energy Prices and Taxes - ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION -- Quarterly publication, 416 pages, ISBN 0256-2332 (paper) 1683-4321 (CD-ROM), paper €380, PDF €304, CD-ROM €900 (2014)
Type: Statistics Publication and CD-ROMs
Subject: Energy Market Reform ; Statistics
Energy Prices & Taxes contains a major international compilation of energy prices of OECD countries: including crude oil and oil product spot prices, import costs by crude stream, industry prices and consumer prices. The end-user prices cover the main petroleum products, gas, coal and electricity. Every issue includes full notes on sources and methods and a description of price mechanisms in each country. Time series availability varies with each data series.

Please note: Due to reductions in our annual budget, the IEA no longer has adequate resources to provide complete information on energy prices and taxes and so has had to suppress certain sections of Energy Prices and Taxes as of 1 January 2012. As a result, some price series have been discontinued in this edition. The series concerned are natural gas and LNG import prices, coal import and export prices and end-use prices for all non-OECD countries. The IEA considered it necessary to reduce the coverage of our publication in order to maintain the high quality of the remaining information in Energy Prices and Taxes. We are hopeful that we may be able to restore these sections in the future if resources become available.

Single Edition: 120€


Longer series for the prices and taxes are available on the CD-ROM.
More info about this title Energy Prices and Taxes - SINGLE ISSUE -- Quarterly publication, 416 pages, ISBN 0256-2332, paper €120, PDF €96 (2014)
Type: Statistics Publication and CD-ROMs
Subject: Energy Market Reform ; Statistics
Energy Prices & Taxes contains a major international compilation of energy prices of OECD countries: including crude oil and oil product spot prices, import costs by crude stream, industry prices and consumer prices. The end-user prices cover the main petroleum products, gas, coal and electricity. Every issue includes full notes on sources and methods and a description of price mechanisms in each country. Time series availability varies with each data series.

Please note: Due to reductions in our annual budget, the IEA no longer has adequate resources to provide complete information on energy prices and taxes and so has had to suppress certain sections of Energy Prices and Taxes as of 1 January 2012. As a result, some price series have been discontinued in this edition. The series concerned are natural gas and LNG import prices, coal import and export prices and end-use prices for all non-OECD countries. The IEA considered it necessary to reduce the coverage of our publication in order to maintain the high quality of the remaining information in Energy Prices and Taxes. We are hopeful that we may be able to restore these sections in the future if resources become available.

See also annual subscription
More info about this title
World Energy Statistics and Balances 2014 -- CD-ROM service, CD-ROM €1400 (2014)
Type: Statistics Publication and CD-ROMs
Subject: Statistics
The IEA energy balances and statistics databases on CD-ROM provide annual historical energy data in four IEA/OECD data bases: energy statistics and energy balances, which contain data for most of the OECD countries for the years 1960 to 2012, with supply estimates for 2013, and energy statistics and balances for more than 100 non-OECD countries for the years 1971 to 2012. _______________________________________________
The CDs and/or hardcopies and PDFs can be purchased individually:

Energy Balances of OECD Countries 2014
Energy Statistics of OECD Countries 2014
Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries 2014
Energy Statistics of Non-OECD Countries 2014