IEA Publications published in: 2013
CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion -- 2013 Edition, 546 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-17475-7, paper €165, PDF €132, CD-ROM €550 (2013)
In recognition of fundamental changes in the way governments approach energy-related environmental issues, the IEA has prepared this publication on CO2 emissions from fuel combustion. This annual publication was first published in 1997 and has become an essential tool for analysts and policy makers in many international fora such as the Conference of the Parties.
The nineteenth session of the Conference of the Parties to the Climate Change Convention (COP 19), in conjunction with the ninth meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 9), will be meeting in Warsaw, Poland from 11 to 22 November 2013.
The data in this book are designed to assist in understanding the evolution of the emissions of CO2 from 1971 to 2011 for more than 140 countries and regions by sector and by fuel. Emissions were calculated using IEA energy databases and the default methods and emission factors from the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.
World Energy Outlook 2013, 708 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-20130-9, paper €150, PDF €120 (2013)
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In a world where big differences in regional energy prices impact competitiveness, who are the potential winners and losers?
Huge volumes of oil are needed to meet growing demand and offset declines in existing fields. Where will it all come from?
What could trigger a rapid convergence in natural gas prices between Asia, Europe and North America, and how would it affect energy markets?
Is the growth in renewable energy self-sustaining and is it sufficient to put us on track to meet global climate goals?
How much progress is being made in phasing out fossil-fuel subsidies and expanding access to modern energy services to the world’s poor?
The answers to these and many other questions are found in WEO-2013
, which covers the prospects for all energy sources, regions and sectors to 2035. Oil is analysed in-depth: resources, production, demand, refining and international trade. Energy efficiency – a major factor in the global energy balance – is treated in much the same way as conventional fuels: Its prospects and contribution are presented in a dedicated chapter. And the report examines the outlook for Brazil’s energy sector in detail and the implications for the global energy landscape.
Medium-Term Coal Market Report 2013 -- Market Trends and Projections to 2018, 144 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-19120-4, paper €100, PDF €80 (2013)
The Medium-Term Coal Market Report 2013 provides IEA forecasts on coal markets for the coming five years as well as an in-depth analysis of recent developments in global coal demand, supply and trade. This third annual report shows that while coal continues to be a growing source of primary energy worldwide, its future is increasingly tied to developments in non-OECD countries, led by China.
Coal is both the leading fuel source behind the growth of OECD non-members and the leading source of power generation in OECD countries. Yet the current low prices for coal add a new challenge to the sector, which is facing uncertainty due to increasing environmental legislation and competition from other fuels, like US shale gas or European renewables.
This report examines, among other things, how coal producers will be affected by such low prices; whether those depressed prices will boost the fuel’s consumption; if other developing countries will follow in China’s footsteps by increasingly relying on coal to fuel economic growth; and, above all, whether the strong growth of coal in China will continue between now and 2018.
Estonia 2013 -- Energy Policies Beyond IEA Countries, 146 pages, ISBN 978-92-6419079-5, paper €75, PDF €60 (2013)
One of the fastest-growing economies in the OECD, Estonia is actively seeking to reduce the intensity of its energy system. Many of these efforts are focused on oil shale, which the country has been using for almost a century and which meets 70% of its energy demand. While it provides a large degree of energy security, oil shale is highly carbon-intensive. The government is seeking to lessen the negative environmental impact by phasing out old power plants and developing new technologies to reduce significantly CO2 emissions.
The efforts on oil shale complement Estonia’s solid track record of modernising its overall energy system. Since restoring its independence in 1991, Estonia has fully liberalised its electricity and gas markets and attained most national energy policy targets and commitments for 2020. It has also started preparing its energy strategy to 2030, with an outlook to 2050. Estonia is also promoting energy market integration with neighbouring EU member states. The strengthening of the Baltic electricity market and its timely integration with the Nordic market, as well as the establishment of a regional gas market, are therefore key priorities for Estonia.
Following its accession to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 2010, Estonia applied for International Energy Agency (IEA) membership in 2011. This review of Estonia’s energy policies is part of the IEA accession process. It analyses the energy policy challenges and opportunities facing Estonia, and provides critiques and recommendations for future policy improvements. It is intended to guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.
Transition to Sustainable Buildings -- Strategies and Opportunities to 2050, 290 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-20241-2, paper €100, PDF €80 (2013)
Buildings are the largest energy consuming sector in the world, and account for over one-third of total final energy consumption and an equally important source of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Achieving significant energy and emissions reduction in the buildings sector is a challenging but achievable policy goal.
Transition to Sustainable Buildings presents detailed scenarios and strategies to 2050, and demonstrates how to reach deep energy and emissions reduction through a combination of best available technologies and intelligent public policy. This IEA study is an indispensible guide for decision makers, providing informative insights on:
- cost-effective options, key technologies and opportunities in the buildings sector;
- solutions for reducing electricity demand growth and flattening peak demand;
- effective energy efficiency policies and lessons learned from different countries;
- future trends and priorities for ASEAN, Brazil, China, the European Union, India, Mexico, Russia, South Africa and the United States;
- implementing a systems approach using innovative products in a cost effective manner; and
- pursuing whole-building (e.g. zero energy buildings) and advanced-component policies to initiate a fundamental shift in the way energy is consumed.
This publication is part of the Energy Technology Perspectives series and one of three end-use studies, together with industry and transport, which looks at the role of technologies and policies in transforming the way energy is used.
Resources to Reserves 2013 -- Oil, Gas and Coal Technologies for the Energy Markets of the Future, 272 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-08354-7, paper €100, PDF €80 (2013)
The availability of oil and gas for future generations continues to provoke international debate. In 2005, the first edition of Resources to Reserves found that the known hydrocarbon resources were sufficient to sustain likely growth for the foreseeable future. Yet the book also predicted that developing oil and gas resources – and bringing them to market – would become more technically demanding.
Resources to Reserves 2013 – a comprehensive update to the 2005 edition – confirms these earlier findings and investigates whether oil and gas resources can be produced at a reasonable cost and in a timely manner, while also protecting environmentally sensitive areas. Released amid a boom in shale gas and oil development in North America that is transforming the global energy landscape, the book surveys the cutting-edge technologies needed to find, produce and bring these reserves to the market, and it reviews the challenges on greenhouse gas emissions associated with fossil fuel production. With renewed interest in coal as a potential source of liquid and gaseous fuels, it also looks at technology advances for this fossil fuel.
Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Germany -- 2013 Review, 212 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-19075-7, paper €75, PDF €60 (2013)
Since the IEA last reviewed Germany’s energy policies in 2007, the country has taken two fundamental policy decisions that will guide its energy policy in coming decades. In September 2010, the federal government adopted the Energy Concept, a comprehensive new strategy for a long-term integrated energy pathway to 2050. Following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011, Germany decided to accelerate the phase-out of nuclear power by 2022 starting with the immediate closure of the eight oldest plants. This decision resulted in the adoption of a suite of new policy measures and determined renewable energy as the cornerstone of future energy supply, a set of policy instruments commonly known as the Energiewende
In order to achieve the ambitious energy transformation set out in the Energiewende
, by 2030 half of all electricity supply will come from renewable energy sources; Germany must continue to develop cost-effective market-based approaches which will support the forecasted growth of variable renewable generation. Furthermore, the costs and benefits need to be allocated in a fair and transparent way among all market participants, especially households.
In the future, renewable energy capacity must expand in parallel with the timely development of the transmission and distribution networks. In addition, a stable regulatory system is necessary to ensure long-term finance to network operators. Furthermore, close monitoring of Germany’s ability to meet electricity demand at peak times should continue in the medium term.
Energy policy decisions in Germany inevitably have an impact beyond the country’s borders and must be taken within the context of a broader European energy policy framework and in close consultation with its neighbours.
This review analyses the energy-policy challenges facing Germany and provides recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.
Download here the executive summary in German.
Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Finland -- 2013 Review, 176 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-19077-1, paper €75, PDF €60 (2013)
Finland’s economy is highly industrialised. Yet with over one-third of its territory located above the Arctic Circle, the country is largely rural and sparsely populated, except for its southern tip. With its energy-intensive industries and its cold climate, Finland’s energy consumption per capita is the highest in the IEA.
Finland is highly dependent on imported fossil fuels, and energy policy is at the heart of the government’s concerns. The government’s energy strategy aims to strengthen Finland’s energy security, to move progressively towards a decarbonised economy, and to deepen its integration in the wider European market.
Finland has a very ambitious renewable energy programme, with a view to meeting 38% of its final energy consumption from renewable sources by 2020. Finland is the most forested country in Europe; biomass will thus play a central role in meeting the target.
Finland is one of few IEA countries with plans to expand its nuclear capacity, and the Parliament has approved the construction of two more nuclear power plants. If all planned projects are completed, the share of electricity produced by nuclear could double by 2025, reaching around 60%. This would contribute to diversifying Finland’s energy security and meeting its low-carbon objectives.
Also, Finland participates in the Baltic Energy Market Interconnection Plan (BEMIP), which aims to further regional integration through EU-supported infrastructure projects.
This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing Finland, and provides sectoral studies and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.
Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Sweden -- 2013 Review, 182 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-19073-3, paper €75, PDF €60 (2013)
|Download here the free chapter on the Swedish energy policy framework
Sweden has made progress in recent years towards a more secure, sustainable energy future. The Scandinavian nation already has an almost carbon-free electricity supply and has phased out oil use in residential and power sectors. It is increasingly integrated within the Nordic and Baltic electricity markets, and its joint renewable electricity certificate market with Norway offers a unique model for other countries.
Now Sweden must take concrete steps to realise its vision of a fossil-fuel-independent vehicle fleet by 2030 and no net greenhouse-gas emissions by 2050. Although Sweden has decided to allow the replacement of its existing nuclear reactors, further emission reductions will come at a higher cost and require technology change. This means Sweden will need to carefully evaluate the most cost-effective pathways for its transition to a low-carbon economy.
Sweden has a high energy-intensity level, which requires greater energy efficiency in industry, buildings, heat and transport. A decarbonisation vision should be mapped out for each industry sector. Starting with transport, Sweden must specify how it will wean its vehicle fleet from fossil fuels by 2030.
Sweden’s industry lead in smart grids is an asset. Sweden should scale up investment in clean energy technologies. As all Nordic countries decarbonise, cost-effective regional solutions can control consumers’ costs. The large-scale deployment of renewable and energy technologies in a common Northern European energy market can drive decarbonisation without comprising competitiveness, security of supply and affordability.
This review analyses the energy-policy challenges currently facing Sweden, and provides studies and recommendations for each sector.