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IEA Publications on 'Energy Security'

More info about this title Energy Policies of IEA Countries - The European Union -- 2014 Review, ISBN 978-92-64-19083-2, paper €75, PDF €60 (2014)
IEA country reviews are only available in PDF format. We no longer offer printed copies.

In October 2014, the European Union (EU) set ambitious climate and energy targets for 2030, confirming its global leadership on climate change. But while the targets are in place, the legal framework to implement them is yet to be developed. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: European Union – 2014 provides recommendations on how the targets can be reached in a costeffective and integrated way, while fostering the competitiveness and energy security of the European Union. The recommendations build on the lessons learned since the first IEA in-depth review of the European Union in 2008.

Since then, EU energy policy has been driving energy market integration, cross-border trade and the implementation of energy and climate targets by 2020. The European Union is a global leader in transitioning towards a low-carbon economy: Europe’s unprecedented renewable energy boom, its action on energy efficiency and the economic downturn have all contributed to a drop in greenhouse gas emissions. However, energy security concerns have increased. Ageing nuclear and coal plants will be shut, and EU energy systems and markets must accommodate growing shares of variable renewable energy. The European Union seeks to foster access to diversified gas and oil supplies to reduce dependence on single suppliers.

Making the most of its diversity, the European Union must strengthen the internal energy market to enhance both its energy security and the competitiveness of its industry. Yet, important interconnections are missing, and, despite the opening of the wholesale market and decreasing prices, concentrated and regulated retail markets do not deliver benefits to consumers. As member states adopt different decarbonisation pathways and energy policy choices, a strong “Energy Union” is needed with effective energy market rules and policies that support the development of low-carbon technologies, within the new energy and climate policy framework for 2030.
More info about this title Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Luxembourg -- 2014 Review, 122 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-21139-1, paper €75, PDF €60 (2014)
IEA country reviews are only available in PDF format. We no longer offer printed copies.

Since 2008, Luxembourg’s energy policy has focused on mitigating CO2 emissions in transport and industry and on supporting renewable energies and energy efficiency towards 2020. Luxembourg’s greenhouse gas emissions have stabilised as energy-intensive industries have scaled back their activities and the government put strong energy efficiency policies in place, notably for buildings. Since 2009, the country’s research and development (R&D) policies have promoted eco-innovation and clean energy technologies. In 2012, government spending on energy R&D as a ratio of gross domestic product was the highest among IEA members. Luxembourg is creating a national platform for smart meters and electric vehicles, the first of its kind country-wide roll out.

Nonetheless, Luxembourg faces several energy challenges. Oil consumption in transport is rising because of growing road fuel sales, largely the result of tax differences to neighbouring countries. This increases Luxembourg’s emissions and its oil stockholding needs. Because the country imports all of its energy needs, energy security is a priority. Luxembourg has sought to address this through greater regional integration such as merging its gas market with Belgium and increasing its electricity interconnection with France and Belgium. Yet the benefits of regional integration of wholesale energy markets have not yet translated to retail markets. Moreover, as regional electricity trade grows and neighbouring countries introduce ambitious decarbonisation policies and capacity markets, Luxembourg will need to define its priorities for an energy strategy through 2030.

This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing Luxembourg and provides recommendations for each sector. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future and the development of its 2030 energy strategy.
More info about this title Energy Policies of IEA Countries - The Netherlands -- 2014 Review, 204 pages, paper €75, PDF €60 (2014)
IEA country reviews are only available in PDF format. We no longer offer printed copies.

Since the last review in 2008, the Netherlands has attracted investment in oil and gas storage; coal, oil and gas import terminals; and efficient power plants. This additional capacity provides flexibility and energy security both in the Netherlands and across EU markets. The Netherlands plays an important role in Europe as a hub for global energy trade, thanks to its open market and integrated supply chains.

However, the outlook for Europe’s second-largest producer of natural gas is challenging amid declining production and uncertain prospects for unconventional gas. Developing the remaining natural gas potential, market integration, and ensuring the security of supply and resilience of energy infrastructure during the transition should be top priorities.

The Netherlands stimulates energy efficiency and innovation in energy-intensive industries along the whole supply chain, notably in the Dutch refining, petrochemical and agriculture sectors, a practice that contributes to industrial competitiveness.

Despite successful decoupling of greenhouse-gas emissions from economic growth between 1990 and 2012, however, the Netherlands remains one of the most fossil-fuel- and CO2-intensive economies among IEA member countries. In September 2013, the Netherlands reached an Energy Agreement with key stakeholders on priority actions to support sustainable economic growth through 2020. In addition to implementing the agreement, the government must set the scene for a stable policy framework up to 2030, which is also crucial for renewable energies.

The Netherlands has accelerated permit procedures for new energy infrastructure and is driving technology cost reduction with reformed renewable support. The country can benefit from further interconnections with neighbouring countries, as renewables become an integral part of wholesale and balancing electricity markets in the EU.

This review analyses the energy policy challenges currently facing the Netherlands and provides recommendations for each sector. It gives advice on implementing the Energy Agreement and how to leverage international opportunities from clean energy technologies.
More info about this title Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Austria -- 2014 Review, 148 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-20960-2, paper €75, PDF €60 (2014)
IEA country reviews are only available in PDF format. We no longer offer printed copies.

Austria's energy policy rests on three pillars – security of supply, energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. The country’s decarbonisation drive has strengthened as the economy and renewable energy use have continued to grow, while fossil fuel use has decreased. Notably, Austria has more than tripled the public funding for energy research, development and demonstration since 2007.

Greenhouse gas emissions from energy use, which peaked in 2005, still need to be reduced further, and the transport sector offers prime opportunities for this. In the context of EU negotiations on an energy and climate policy framework to 2030, Austria should develop a strategy that also integrates security of supply and internal market dimensions.

Closer cross-border integration of both electricity and natural gas markets and systems is required to build a single European market. This calls for increased co-ordination and co-operation with neighbouring countries. Austria should also encourage investment in networks, optimise demand response and integrate variable renewable energy supply in a cost-effective and market-based manner.

A well-functioning internal market can help reduce the growing concerns over energy prices and costs, both for industry and for citizens. Austria could address these concerns also by implementing more energy efficiency measures and facilitating greater retail market competition.

This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing Austria and provides sectoral studies and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.
More info about this title The Power of Transformation -- Wind, Sun and the Economics of Flexible Power Systems, 238 pages, ISBN PRINT 978-92-64-20802-5 / WEB 978-92-64-20803-2, paper €100, PDF €80 (2014)
Wind power and solar photovoltaics (PV) are crucial to meeting future energy needs while decarbonising the power sector. Deployment of both technologies has expanded rapidly in recent years, one of the few bright spots in an otherwise bleak picture of clean energy progress. However, the inherent variability of wind power and solar PV raises unique and pressing questions. Can power systems remain reliable and cost-effective while supporting high shares of variable renewable energy (VRE)? And if so, how?

Based on a thorough review of the integration challenge, this publication
- gauges the economic significance of VRE integration impacts
- highlights the need for a system-wide approach to integrating high shares of VRE
- recommends how to achieve a cost-effective transformation of the power system.

This book summarises the results of the third phase of the Grid Integration of VRE (GIVAR) project, undertaken by the IEA over the past two years. It is rooted in a set of seven case studies, comprising 15 countries on four continents. It deepens the technical analysis of previous IEA work and lays out an analytical framework for understanding the economics of VRE integration impacts. Based on detailed modelling, the impact of high shares of VRE on total system costs is analysed. In addition, the four flexible resources which are available to facilitate VRE integration – generation, grid infrastructure, storage and demand side integration – are assessed in terms of their technical performance and cost-effectiveness.
More info about this title Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Finland -- 2013 Review, 176 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-19077-1, paper €75, PDF €60 (2013)
Type: Country Reviews
Subject: Energy Policy ; Renewable Energy ; Energy Security
Finland’s economy is highly industrialised. Yet with over one-third of its territory located above the Arctic Circle, the country is largely rural and sparsely populated, except for its southern tip. With its energy-intensive industries and its cold climate, Finland’s energy consumption per capita is the highest in the IEA.

Finland is highly dependent on imported fossil fuels, and energy policy is at the heart of the government’s concerns. The government’s energy strategy aims to strengthen Finland’s energy security, to move progressively towards a decarbonised economy, and to deepen its integration in the wider European market.

Finland has a very ambitious renewable energy programme, with a view to meeting 38% of its final energy consumption from renewable sources by 2020. Finland is the most forested country in Europe; biomass will thus play a central role in meeting the target.

Finland is one of few IEA countries with plans to expand its nuclear capacity, and the Parliament has approved the construction of two more nuclear power plants. If all planned projects are completed, the share of electricity produced by nuclear could double by 2025, reaching around 60%. This would contribute to diversifying Finland’s energy security and meeting its low-carbon objectives.

Also, Finland participates in the Baltic Energy Market Interconnection Plan (BEMIP), which aims to further regional integration through EU-supported infrastructure projects.

This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing Finland, and provides sectoral studies and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.
More info about this title Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Sweden -- 2013 Review, 182 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-19073-3, paper €75, PDF €60 (2013)
Download here the free chapter on the Swedish energy policy framework

Sweden has made progress in recent years towards a more secure, sustainable energy future. The Scandinavian nation already has an almost carbon-free electricity supply and has phased out oil use in residential and power sectors. It is increasingly integrated within the Nordic and Baltic electricity markets, and its joint renewable electricity certificate market with Norway offers a unique model for other countries.

Now Sweden must take concrete steps to realise its vision of a fossil-fuel-independent vehicle fleet by 2030 and no net greenhouse-gas emissions by 2050. Although Sweden has decided to allow the replacement of its existing nuclear reactors, further emission reductions will come at a higher cost and require technology change. This means Sweden will need to carefully evaluate the most cost-effective pathways for its transition to a low-carbon economy.

Sweden has a high energy-intensity level, which requires greater energy efficiency in industry, buildings, heat and transport. A decarbonisation vision should be mapped out for each industry sector. Starting with transport, Sweden must specify how it will wean its vehicle fleet from fossil fuels by 2030.

Sweden’s industry lead in smart grids is an asset. Sweden should scale up investment in clean energy technologies. As all Nordic countries decarbonise, cost-effective regional solutions can control consumers’ costs. The large-scale deployment of renewable and energy technologies in a common Northern European energy market can drive decarbonisation without comprising competitiveness, security of supply and affordability.

This review analyses the energy-policy challenges currently facing Sweden, and provides studies and recommendations for each sector.