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IEA Publications on 'Energy Market Reform'

More info about this title Energy Policies of IEA Countries - The United States -- 2014 Review, 284 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-21146-9, paper €75, PDF €60 (2014)
Type: Country Reviews
Subject: Energy Market Reform ; Energy Policy
IEA country reviews are only available in PDF format. We no longer offer printed copies.

Since the last IEA review of the United States was published in 2008, the country’s energy policy landscape has fundamentally changed. In many aspects there have been significant improvements, and the country is in a strong position to deliver a reliable, affordable and environmentally sustainable energy system.

The most obvious change has been the renaissance of oil and gas production: the growth in unconventional gas production, alongside increased output of light tight oil, is making a substantial contribution to economic activity and competitiveness. Conversely, the expansion in energy production is also raising unease on environmental and safety grounds, concerns which must be addressed appropriately.

The U.S. natural gas boom has resulted in stable wholesale electricity prices, lower greenhouse gas emissions and greater system flexibility. The electricity system, however, is in need of significant investment if the country is to meet demand growth forecasts and strengthen its resilience to climate change. Renewable energy production is growing but the durability of federal tax incentives remains a persistent uncertainty.

At policy level, a number of strategic initiatives have created a new policy framework over the past six years. Among them, the Climate Action Plan has the potential to guide the U.S. economy away from its reliance on fossil fuels and towards a more sustainable energy system.

This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing the United States and provides recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure, sustainable and affordable energy future.
More info about this title Energy Policies of IEA Countries - The European Union -- 2014 Review, ISBN 978-92-64-19083-2, paper €75, PDF €60 (2014)
IEA country reviews are only available in PDF format. We no longer offer printed copies.

In October 2014, the European Union (EU) set ambitious climate and energy targets for 2030, confirming its global leadership on climate change. But while the targets are in place, the legal framework to implement them is yet to be developed. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: European Union – 2014 provides recommendations on how the targets can be reached in a costeffective and integrated way, while fostering the competitiveness and energy security of the European Union. The recommendations build on the lessons learned since the first IEA in-depth review of the European Union in 2008.

Since then, EU energy policy has been driving energy market integration, cross-border trade and the implementation of energy and climate targets by 2020. The European Union is a global leader in transitioning towards a low-carbon economy: Europe’s unprecedented renewable energy boom, its action on energy efficiency and the economic downturn have all contributed to a drop in greenhouse gas emissions. However, energy security concerns have increased. Ageing nuclear and coal plants will be shut, and EU energy systems and markets must accommodate growing shares of variable renewable energy. The European Union seeks to foster access to diversified gas and oil supplies to reduce dependence on single suppliers.

Making the most of its diversity, the European Union must strengthen the internal energy market to enhance both its energy security and the competitiveness of its industry. Yet, important interconnections are missing, and, despite the opening of the wholesale market and decreasing prices, concentrated and regulated retail markets do not deliver benefits to consumers. As member states adopt different decarbonisation pathways and energy policy choices, a strong “Energy Union” is needed with effective energy market rules and policies that support the development of low-carbon technologies, within the new energy and climate policy framework for 2030.
More info about this title Morocco 2014 -- Energy Policies Beyond IEA Countries, 132 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-21148-3, paper €75, PDF €60 (2014)
IEA country reviews are only available in PDF format. We no longer offer printed copies.

The Kingdom of Morocco is over 90% dependent on energy imports, so a major challenge is to develop indigenous resources. Topography and climate are favourable to wind, solar and additional hydropower. By 2020 Morocco aims to derive more than 40% of its electrical capacity from these sources, strengthening both energy security and sustainability. At the same time, Rabat aims to retain its attractive investment conditions for oil and gas exploration.

To reduce the burden of energy subsidies, transport fuels have progressively been brought up towards full market prices, and electricity tariffs are also being adjusted upward. Energy efficiency has been elevated to a national priority, with a range of measures on lighting, building standards, appliances and vehicles.

Morocco’s electricity grid now covers more than 98% of households. The sector is being progressively liberalised, with foreign investment in both renewables and coal-fired power stations. The energy mix is diversified further by imports of gas from Algeria and electricity from Spain.

Morocco has established new national agencies to promote energy efficiency, renewable energy, and research and development. Co-operation on climate change within the United Nations framework is widely perceived as exemplary. Persevering in this direction could help Morocco emerge as a regional leader in energy sector reform, as well as in the renewable energy technologies in which it has a natural advantage.

This review analyses the energy-policy challenges facing Morocco and provides recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide policy makers in the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.
More info about this title Maroc 2014 -- Politiques énergétiques hors des pays de l'AIE, 138 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-22355-4, paper €75, PDF €60 (2014)
Les IEA country reviews existent uniquement en format PDF. Nous ne proposons plus la version imprimée.

Le royaume du Maroc dépend à 90 % des importations d’énergie. Un défi majeur consiste donc à développer ses ressources locales. La topographie et le climat sont propices à l’énergie éolienne, solaire et hydroélectrique. Le Maroc entend tirer plus de 40 % de sa capacité électrique de ces sources à l’horizon 2020, renforçant ainsi la sécurité d’approvisionnement et la fiabilité. En même temps, Rabat compte maintenir ses conditions d’investissement attrayantes pour l’exploration pétrolière et gazière.

Afin de réduire le poids des subventions énergétiques, les prix des carburants ont progressivement rejoint ceux des marchés internationaux. Les tarifs de l’électricité ont également été revus à la hausse. L’efficacité énergétique a été érigée en priorité nationale, avec nombre de nouvelles mesures portant sur l’éclairage, la réglementation thermique, les équipements et les véhicules.

Le réseau électrique marocain englobe maintenant plus de 98 % des ménages. Le secteur s’est progressivement libéralisé, accueillant des investissements étrangers dans les énergies renouvelables et les centrales électriques au charbon. Le bouquet énergétique a été diversifié par les importations de gaz en provenance d’Algérie et d’électricité en provenance d’Espagne.

Le Maroc a créé de nouvelles agences nationales chargées de promouvoir l’efficacité énergétique, les énergies renouvelables, et la recherche et développement. La coopération dans le cadre de la Convention-cadre des Nations Unies sur les changements climatiques est largement perçue comme exemplaire. Persévérer dans cette direction pourrait aider le Maroc à jouer un rôle de chef de file régional dans la réforme du secteur énergétique, ainsi que dans le domaine des technologies des énergies renouvelables pour lesquelles il a un avantage naturel.

Cette étude analyse les défis énergétiques auxquels est confronté le Maroc et présente des recommandations pour améliorer les politiques en la matière. Il a pour objectif d’orienter les décideurs du pays vers un avenir énergétique sûr et durable.
More info about this title Energy Policies of IEA Countries - The Netherlands -- 2014 Review, 204 pages, paper €75, PDF €60 (2014)
IEA country reviews are only available in PDF format. We no longer offer printed copies.

Since the last review in 2008, the Netherlands has attracted investment in oil and gas storage; coal, oil and gas import terminals; and efficient power plants. This additional capacity provides flexibility and energy security both in the Netherlands and across EU markets. The Netherlands plays an important role in Europe as a hub for global energy trade, thanks to its open market and integrated supply chains.

However, the outlook for Europe’s second-largest producer of natural gas is challenging amid declining production and uncertain prospects for unconventional gas. Developing the remaining natural gas potential, market integration, and ensuring the security of supply and resilience of energy infrastructure during the transition should be top priorities.

The Netherlands stimulates energy efficiency and innovation in energy-intensive industries along the whole supply chain, notably in the Dutch refining, petrochemical and agriculture sectors, a practice that contributes to industrial competitiveness.

Despite successful decoupling of greenhouse-gas emissions from economic growth between 1990 and 2012, however, the Netherlands remains one of the most fossil-fuel- and CO2-intensive economies among IEA member countries. In September 2013, the Netherlands reached an Energy Agreement with key stakeholders on priority actions to support sustainable economic growth through 2020. In addition to implementing the agreement, the government must set the scene for a stable policy framework up to 2030, which is also crucial for renewable energies.

The Netherlands has accelerated permit procedures for new energy infrastructure and is driving technology cost reduction with reformed renewable support. The country can benefit from further interconnections with neighbouring countries, as renewables become an integral part of wholesale and balancing electricity markets in the EU.

This review analyses the energy policy challenges currently facing the Netherlands and provides recommendations for each sector. It gives advice on implementing the Energy Agreement and how to leverage international opportunities from clean energy technologies.
More info about this title Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Austria -- 2014 Review, 148 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-20960-2, paper €75, PDF €60 (2014)
IEA country reviews are only available in PDF format. We no longer offer printed copies.

Austria's energy policy rests on three pillars – security of supply, energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. The country’s decarbonisation drive has strengthened as the economy and renewable energy use have continued to grow, while fossil fuel use has decreased. Notably, Austria has more than tripled the public funding for energy research, development and demonstration since 2007.

Greenhouse gas emissions from energy use, which peaked in 2005, still need to be reduced further, and the transport sector offers prime opportunities for this. In the context of EU negotiations on an energy and climate policy framework to 2030, Austria should develop a strategy that also integrates security of supply and internal market dimensions.

Closer cross-border integration of both electricity and natural gas markets and systems is required to build a single European market. This calls for increased co-ordination and co-operation with neighbouring countries. Austria should also encourage investment in networks, optimise demand response and integrate variable renewable energy supply in a cost-effective and market-based manner.

A well-functioning internal market can help reduce the growing concerns over energy prices and costs, both for industry and for citizens. Austria could address these concerns also by implementing more energy efficiency measures and facilitating greater retail market competition.

This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing Austria and provides sectoral studies and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.
More info about this title Estonia 2013 -- Energy Policies Beyond IEA Countries, 146 pages, ISBN 978-92-6419079-5, paper €75, PDF €60 (2013)
One of the fastest-growing economies in the OECD, Estonia is actively seeking to reduce the intensity of its energy system. Many of these efforts are focused on oil shale, which the country has been using for almost a century and which meets 70% of its energy demand. While it provides a large degree of energy security, oil shale is highly carbon-intensive. The government is seeking to lessen the negative environmental impact by phasing out old power plants and developing new technologies to reduce significantly CO2 emissions.

The efforts on oil shale complement Estonia’s solid track record of modernising its overall energy system. Since restoring its independence in 1991, Estonia has fully liberalised its electricity and gas markets and attained most national energy policy targets and commitments for 2020. It has also started preparing its energy strategy to 2030, with an outlook to 2050. Estonia is also promoting energy market integration with neighbouring EU member states. The strengthening of the Baltic electricity market and its timely integration with the Nordic market, as well as the establishment of a regional gas market, are therefore key priorities for Estonia.

Following its accession to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 2010, Estonia applied for International Energy Agency (IEA) membership in 2011. This review of Estonia’s energy policies is part of the IEA accession process. It analyses the energy policy challenges and opportunities facing Estonia, and provides critiques and recommendations for future policy improvements. It is intended to guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.
More info about this title Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Germany -- 2013 Review, 212 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-19075-7, paper €75, PDF €60 (2013)
Since the IEA last reviewed Germany’s energy policies in 2007, the country has taken two fundamental policy decisions that will guide its energy policy in coming decades. In September 2010, the federal government adopted the Energy Concept, a comprehensive new strategy for a long-term integrated energy pathway to 2050. Following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011, Germany decided to accelerate the phase-out of nuclear power by 2022 starting with the immediate closure of the eight oldest plants. This decision resulted in the adoption of a suite of new policy measures and determined renewable energy as the cornerstone of future energy supply, a set of policy instruments commonly known as the Energiewende.

In order to achieve the ambitious energy transformation set out in the Energiewende, by 2030 half of all electricity supply will come from renewable energy sources; Germany must continue to develop cost-effective market-based approaches which will support the forecasted growth of variable renewable generation. Furthermore, the costs and benefits need to be allocated in a fair and transparent way among all market participants, especially households.

In the future, renewable energy capacity must expand in parallel with the timely development of the transmission and distribution networks. In addition, a stable regulatory system is necessary to ensure long-term finance to network operators. Furthermore, close monitoring of Germany’s ability to meet electricity demand at peak times should continue in the medium term.

Energy policy decisions in Germany inevitably have an impact beyond the country’s borders and must be taken within the context of a broader European energy policy framework and in close consultation with its neighbours.

This review analyses the energy-policy challenges facing Germany and provides recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.

Download here the executive summary in German.
More info about this title Energy Prices and Taxes - ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION -- Quarterly publication, 416 pages, ISBN 0256-2332 (paper) 1683-4321 (CD-ROM), paper €380, PDF €304, CD-ROM €900 (2014)
Type: Statistics Publication and CD-ROMs
Subject: Energy Market Reform ; Statistics
Energy Prices & Taxes contains a major international compilation of energy prices of OECD countries: including crude oil and oil product spot prices, import costs by crude stream, industry prices and consumer prices. The end-user prices cover the main petroleum products, gas, coal and electricity. Every issue includes full notes on sources and methods and a description of price mechanisms in each country. Time series availability varies with each data series.

Please note: Due to reductions in our annual budget, the IEA no longer has adequate resources to provide complete information on energy prices and taxes and so has had to suppress certain sections of Energy Prices and Taxes as of 1 January 2012. As a result, some price series have been discontinued in this edition. The series concerned are natural gas and LNG import prices, coal import and export prices and end-use prices for all non-OECD countries. The IEA considered it necessary to reduce the coverage of our publication in order to maintain the high quality of the remaining information in Energy Prices and Taxes. We are hopeful that we may be able to restore these sections in the future if resources become available.

Single Edition: 120€


Longer series for the prices and taxes are available on the CD-ROM.
More info about this title Energy Prices and Taxes - SINGLE ISSUE -- Quarterly publication, 416 pages, ISBN 0256-2332, paper €120, PDF €96 (2014)
Type: Statistics Publication and CD-ROMs
Subject: Energy Market Reform ; Statistics
Energy Prices & Taxes contains a major international compilation of energy prices of OECD countries: including crude oil and oil product spot prices, import costs by crude stream, industry prices and consumer prices. The end-user prices cover the main petroleum products, gas, coal and electricity. Every issue includes full notes on sources and methods and a description of price mechanisms in each country. Time series availability varies with each data series.

Please note: Due to reductions in our annual budget, the IEA no longer has adequate resources to provide complete information on energy prices and taxes and so has had to suppress certain sections of Energy Prices and Taxes as of 1 January 2012. As a result, some price series have been discontinued in this edition. The series concerned are natural gas and LNG import prices, coal import and export prices and end-use prices for all non-OECD countries. The IEA considered it necessary to reduce the coverage of our publication in order to maintain the high quality of the remaining information in Energy Prices and Taxes. We are hopeful that we may be able to restore these sections in the future if resources become available.

See also annual subscription