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IEA Publications on 'Energy Efficiency'

More info about this title Energy Policies of IEA Countries - The European Union -- 2014 Review, ISBN 978-92-64-19083-2, paper €75, PDF €60 (2014)
IEA country reviews are only available in PDF format. We no longer offer printed copies.

In October 2014, the European Union (EU) set ambitious climate and energy targets for 2030, confirming its global leadership on climate change. But while the targets are in place, the legal framework to implement them is yet to be developed. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: European Union – 2014 provides recommendations on how the targets can be reached in a costeffective and integrated way, while fostering the competitiveness and energy security of the European Union. The recommendations build on the lessons learned since the first IEA in-depth review of the European Union in 2008.

Since then, EU energy policy has been driving energy market integration, cross-border trade and the implementation of energy and climate targets by 2020. The European Union is a global leader in transitioning towards a low-carbon economy: Europe’s unprecedented renewable energy boom, its action on energy efficiency and the economic downturn have all contributed to a drop in greenhouse gas emissions. However, energy security concerns have increased. Ageing nuclear and coal plants will be shut, and EU energy systems and markets must accommodate growing shares of variable renewable energy. The European Union seeks to foster access to diversified gas and oil supplies to reduce dependence on single suppliers.

Making the most of its diversity, the European Union must strengthen the internal energy market to enhance both its energy security and the competitiveness of its industry. Yet, important interconnections are missing, and, despite the opening of the wholesale market and decreasing prices, concentrated and regulated retail markets do not deliver benefits to consumers. As member states adopt different decarbonisation pathways and energy policy choices, a strong “Energy Union” is needed with effective energy market rules and policies that support the development of low-carbon technologies, within the new energy and climate policy framework for 2030.
More info about this title Morocco 2014 -- Energy Policies Beyond IEA Countries, 132 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-21148-3, paper €75, PDF €60 (2014)
IEA country reviews are only available in PDF format. We no longer offer printed copies.

The Kingdom of Morocco is over 90% dependent on energy imports, so a major challenge is to develop indigenous resources. Topography and climate are favourable to wind, solar and additional hydropower. By 2020 Morocco aims to derive more than 40% of its electrical capacity from these sources, strengthening both energy security and sustainability. At the same time, Rabat aims to retain its attractive investment conditions for oil and gas exploration.

To reduce the burden of energy subsidies, transport fuels have progressively been brought up towards full market prices, and electricity tariffs are also being adjusted upward. Energy efficiency has been elevated to a national priority, with a range of measures on lighting, building standards, appliances and vehicles.

Morocco’s electricity grid now covers more than 98% of households. The sector is being progressively liberalised, with foreign investment in both renewables and coal-fired power stations. The energy mix is diversified further by imports of gas from Algeria and electricity from Spain.

Morocco has established new national agencies to promote energy efficiency, renewable energy, and research and development. Co-operation on climate change within the United Nations framework is widely perceived as exemplary. Persevering in this direction could help Morocco emerge as a regional leader in energy sector reform, as well as in the renewable energy technologies in which it has a natural advantage.

This review analyses the energy-policy challenges facing Morocco and provides recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide policy makers in the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.
More info about this title Maroc 2014 -- Politiques énergétiques hors des pays de l'AIE, 138 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-22355-4, paper €75, PDF €60 (2014)
Les IEA country reviews existent uniquement en format PDF. Nous ne proposons plus la version imprimée.

Le royaume du Maroc dépend à 90 % des importations d’énergie. Un défi majeur consiste donc à développer ses ressources locales. La topographie et le climat sont propices à l’énergie éolienne, solaire et hydroélectrique. Le Maroc entend tirer plus de 40 % de sa capacité électrique de ces sources à l’horizon 2020, renforçant ainsi la sécurité d’approvisionnement et la fiabilité. En même temps, Rabat compte maintenir ses conditions d’investissement attrayantes pour l’exploration pétrolière et gazière.

Afin de réduire le poids des subventions énergétiques, les prix des carburants ont progressivement rejoint ceux des marchés internationaux. Les tarifs de l’électricité ont également été revus à la hausse. L’efficacité énergétique a été érigée en priorité nationale, avec nombre de nouvelles mesures portant sur l’éclairage, la réglementation thermique, les équipements et les véhicules.

Le réseau électrique marocain englobe maintenant plus de 98 % des ménages. Le secteur s’est progressivement libéralisé, accueillant des investissements étrangers dans les énergies renouvelables et les centrales électriques au charbon. Le bouquet énergétique a été diversifié par les importations de gaz en provenance d’Algérie et d’électricité en provenance d’Espagne.

Le Maroc a créé de nouvelles agences nationales chargées de promouvoir l’efficacité énergétique, les énergies renouvelables, et la recherche et développement. La coopération dans le cadre de la Convention-cadre des Nations Unies sur les changements climatiques est largement perçue comme exemplaire. Persévérer dans cette direction pourrait aider le Maroc à jouer un rôle de chef de file régional dans la réforme du secteur énergétique, ainsi que dans le domaine des technologies des énergies renouvelables pour lesquelles il a un avantage naturel.

Cette étude analyse les défis énergétiques auxquels est confronté le Maroc et présente des recommandations pour améliorer les politiques en la matière. Il a pour objectif d’orienter les décideurs du pays vers un avenir énergétique sûr et durable.
More info about this title Energy Efficiency Market Report 2014 -- Market Trends and Medium-Term Prospects, 224 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-21826-0, paper €100, PDF €80 (2014)
The evidence is clear: energy efficiency has played, and continues to play, a large and valuable role in the sustainable development of the global economy. The energy demand that is avoided as a result of steady improvements in the efficiency of energy-using stock such as buildings, cars and appliances is larger than the total final consumption from coal, oil or gas in IEA member countries.

The market for energy efficiency investments is very large – estimated between USD 310 billion and USD 360 billion in 2011 – and this market is producing results: total final consumption in IEA countries is estimated to be 60% lower today because of energy efficiency improvements over the last four decades. Since 2001, investments in energy efficiency in 18 IEA countries have helped to avoid over 1 700 million tonnes of oil-equivalent from being consumed.

This year’s report includes an in-depth look at energy efficiency developments in the transport sector and in finance. Huge new waves of demand for mobility are emerging in OECD non member economies, bringing with them the challenges of pollution and congestion already faced in OECD countries. Fuel-economy standards and other policies are expected to help shape the market for more energy-efficient vehicles in the years to come. In financial markets, energy efficiency is becoming an important segment in its own right, aided by a growing range of financial products. We document the growing scale and diversity of energy efficiency products and actors.

Finally, this report reviews national energy efficiency market developments in various jurisdictions around the world, including Canada, China, the European Union, India and Italy. These case studies provide snapshots of specific energy efficiency sub-markets, and insights into how these markets may evolve in the coming years.
More info about this title Capturing the Multiple Benefits of Energy Efficiency, 232 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-22072-0, paper €100, PDF €80 (2014)
The traditional focus on energy savings as the main goal of energy efficiency policy has, at times, led to an underestimation of the full value of energy efficiency in both national and global economies. Energy efficiency can bring multiple benefits, such as enhancing the sustainability of the energy system, supporting strategic objectives for economic and social development, promoting environmental goals and increasing prosperity.

The aim of this book is two-fold: to build knowledge of the multiple benefits of energy efficiency, and to demonstrate how policy makers and other stakeholders can use existing tools to measure and maximise the benefits they seek. Five key benefits areas – macroeconomic development; public budgets; health and well-being; industrial productivity; and energy delivery – are investigated in-depth, with compelling results. When the value of multiple benefits is calculated alongside traditional benefits of energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions reductions, investments in energy efficiency measures have delivered returns as high as four US dollars for every one US dollar invested. Considering multiple benefits also has important implications for unravelling one of the persistent challenges in energy efficiency – the rebound effect – revealing that it is not always negative. In fact, the rebound effect often signals a positive outcome in terms of achieving broader social and economic goals.

By identifying and quantifying a broader range of impacts of energy efficiency, the multiple benefits approach repositions energy efficiency as a mainstream tool for economic and social development, and has the potential to motivate higher uptake of energy efficiency opportunities in the market.
More info about this title Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Luxembourg -- 2014 Review, 122 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-21139-1, paper €75, PDF €60 (2014)
IEA country reviews are only available in PDF format. We no longer offer printed copies.

Since 2008, Luxembourg’s energy policy has focused on mitigating CO2 emissions in transport and industry and on supporting renewable energies and energy efficiency towards 2020. Luxembourg’s greenhouse gas emissions have stabilised as energy-intensive industries have scaled back their activities and the government put strong energy efficiency policies in place, notably for buildings. Since 2009, the country’s research and development (R&D) policies have promoted eco-innovation and clean energy technologies. In 2012, government spending on energy R&D as a ratio of gross domestic product was the highest among IEA members. Luxembourg is creating a national platform for smart meters and electric vehicles, the first of its kind country-wide roll out.

Nonetheless, Luxembourg faces several energy challenges. Oil consumption in transport is rising because of growing road fuel sales, largely the result of tax differences to neighbouring countries. This increases Luxembourg’s emissions and its oil stockholding needs. Because the country imports all of its energy needs, energy security is a priority. Luxembourg has sought to address this through greater regional integration such as merging its gas market with Belgium and increasing its electricity interconnection with France and Belgium. Yet the benefits of regional integration of wholesale energy markets have not yet translated to retail markets. Moreover, as regional electricity trade grows and neighbouring countries introduce ambitious decarbonisation policies and capacity markets, Luxembourg will need to define its priorities for an energy strategy through 2030.

This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing Luxembourg and provides recommendations for each sector. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future and the development of its 2030 energy strategy.
More info about this title Energy Policies of IEA Countries - The Netherlands -- 2014 Review, 204 pages, paper €75, PDF €60 (2014)
IEA country reviews are only available in PDF format. We no longer offer printed copies.

Since the last review in 2008, the Netherlands has attracted investment in oil and gas storage; coal, oil and gas import terminals; and efficient power plants. This additional capacity provides flexibility and energy security both in the Netherlands and across EU markets. The Netherlands plays an important role in Europe as a hub for global energy trade, thanks to its open market and integrated supply chains.

However, the outlook for Europe’s second-largest producer of natural gas is challenging amid declining production and uncertain prospects for unconventional gas. Developing the remaining natural gas potential, market integration, and ensuring the security of supply and resilience of energy infrastructure during the transition should be top priorities.

The Netherlands stimulates energy efficiency and innovation in energy-intensive industries along the whole supply chain, notably in the Dutch refining, petrochemical and agriculture sectors, a practice that contributes to industrial competitiveness.

Despite successful decoupling of greenhouse-gas emissions from economic growth between 1990 and 2012, however, the Netherlands remains one of the most fossil-fuel- and CO2-intensive economies among IEA member countries. In September 2013, the Netherlands reached an Energy Agreement with key stakeholders on priority actions to support sustainable economic growth through 2020. In addition to implementing the agreement, the government must set the scene for a stable policy framework up to 2030, which is also crucial for renewable energies.

The Netherlands has accelerated permit procedures for new energy infrastructure and is driving technology cost reduction with reformed renewable support. The country can benefit from further interconnections with neighbouring countries, as renewables become an integral part of wholesale and balancing electricity markets in the EU.

This review analyses the energy policy challenges currently facing the Netherlands and provides recommendations for each sector. It gives advice on implementing the Energy Agreement and how to leverage international opportunities from clean energy technologies.
More info about this title Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Austria -- 2014 Review, 148 pages, ISBN 978-92-64-20960-2, paper €75, PDF €60 (2014)
IEA country reviews are only available in PDF format. We no longer offer printed copies.

Austria's energy policy rests on three pillars – security of supply, energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. The country’s decarbonisation drive has strengthened as the economy and renewable energy use have continued to grow, while fossil fuel use has decreased. Notably, Austria has more than tripled the public funding for energy research, development and demonstration since 2007.

Greenhouse gas emissions from energy use, which peaked in 2005, still need to be reduced further, and the transport sector offers prime opportunities for this. In the context of EU negotiations on an energy and climate policy framework to 2030, Austria should develop a strategy that also integrates security of supply and internal market dimensions.

Closer cross-border integration of both electricity and natural gas markets and systems is required to build a single European market. This calls for increased co-ordination and co-operation with neighbouring countries. Austria should also encourage investment in networks, optimise demand response and integrate variable renewable energy supply in a cost-effective and market-based manner.

A well-functioning internal market can help reduce the growing concerns over energy prices and costs, both for industry and for citizens. Austria could address these concerns also by implementing more energy efficiency measures and facilitating greater retail market competition.

This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing Austria and provides sectoral studies and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.