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The IEA provides support for international collaboration on energy technology R&D, deployment and information dissemination. These groups function within a framework created by the IEA - the International Framework for International Energy Technology Collaboration. The views, findings and publications of these international groups (formally called Implementing Agreements) do not necessarily represent the views or policies of the IEA Secretariat or of all its individual member countries. OECD Member countries, autonomous OECD non-member countries, intergovernmental organisations, non-governmental organisations and private sector entities may participate. For more information, see our Technology Agreements page.

Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

Fuel for transport accounts for some 32% of final energy use. Almost all of this energy is in the form of oil and transport accounts for 60 per cent of total oil usage. Of this, road transport accounts for 83 per cent. Hybrid and electric vehicles offer an opportunity to reduce the dependence of transport on oil and at the same time, can offer the potential to reduce adverse environmental impacts of energy supply and use.

The use of hybrid drive systems incorporating an electric motor together with another power source may be the best way to capitalise on the potential benefits of electric traction systems. The objective of the Implementing Agreement on Hybrid and Electric Vehicles is to help hybrid and electric vehicle technologies reach their full market potential, with attendant advantages for diversification of energy supplies and environmental protection.

The work programme includes extensive information exchange about the electric vehicle programmes and technologies in each country; studies of the energy and environmental impacts of electric vehicles (including development of a model for the assessment of large scale market penetration of electric vehicles; data collection on the environmental impacts of battery systems; and characterisation of alternative transport chains, impacts on local urban environments); studies on infrastructure (covering such issues as standardisation, comparison of technical features, cost and deployment across participating countries); and exploratory research in batteries and supercapacitors (including organisation of expert workshops, outlook/appraisal of long-term research aspects for different battery technologies).

Assessment and evaluation of trends and technological needs for hybrid vehicles are a new area of activity. The work programme is conducted through informal co-ordination of activities by participants; formal co-ordination or initiation of activities to achieve shared objectives through shared tasks and information exchange; and formal co-ordination of activities based on cost sharing.

Signatories : Austria | Belgium | Canada | Denmark | Finland | France | Germany | Ireland | Italy | Korea, Republic of | Netherlands | Portugal | Spain | Sweden | Switzerland | Turkey | United Kingdom | United States |
For more information: http://www.ieahev.org

Current Projects (Annexes)

Task 01. Information Exchange on EV Technologies and Programmes
Collect and exchange information on EV technologies and programmes, which will help participants formulate policies and technical development initiatives.


Task 10. Electrochemical Power Sources and Energy Storage Systems for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles
Establish priorities for co-operative exploratory R&D on advanced batteries and capacitors. Provide framework for co-operation on specific R&D projects.


Task 15. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Task 15, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs), provides essential information to understand the current variables related to PHEVs entering the market. Questions to be answered include identifying which types of PHEVs are best in various applications, and how much PHEVs will actually increase the sustainability of transport. Phase One started in 2008 and will conclude in the spring of 2012. The Task has had three major activities since its launch in December 2007, including meetings on the world's lithium supply (in conjunction with Task 10) and the cold-weather performance of PHEVs, and a workshop evaluating grid-connected vehicles in support of the integration of wind power into the grid. Objectives of the Task included: (1) Identify the best market niche(s) for multiple PHEV technology options; (2) Evaluate competing vehicle types such as gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG) and electric vehicles that operate in the same market niche for high daily use rate; (3) Upgrading vehicle simulation models of multiple plug-in hybrid powertrain types by comparing results from IFP Nouvelles (France) and Argonne National Laboratory (United States.). The group is presenting multiple papers at the Electric Vehicle Symposium (EVS 26) in Los Angeles, U.S., in May 2012. The paper topics will be compiled into the Task final report to be prepared after EVS 26.


Task 17. System Integration
Task 17 (System Integration for EVs) is analyzing technology options for the optimization of electric vehicle (EV) components and drivetrain configurations that will enhance vehicle energy efficiency performance. Activities in this Task include technology assessment studies and information sharing. Since the task kickoff in November 2010, two expert meetings have taken place. These meetings have included participants from industry and research organizations as well as technology policy experts from the participating IA-HEV member countries. The scope of work has been focused to the capabilities and fields of expertise of the participants. The topics to be covered in the final Task 17 report include two major areas: (1) Section I on components will focus on battery management systems, electric motors, and range extenders, and (2) Section II will provide an overview of current EV drivetrain configurations coming onto the market and the performance assessment methods available involving simulation tools and testing procedures. The Task also plans to include the information available on performance gained from different electric vehicle demonstration programmes that are currently active in Europe, the United States (U.S.), and Asia.


Task 18. EV Ecosystems
Task 18 (EV Ecosystems) is capturing practical experiences from cities, regions, and businesses that are pioneering advanced plug-in electric vehicle (EV) pilot programs. Emphasis will be placed on local deployment initiatives to enable bottom-up policy-making that includes public and private stakeholders. An "EV Ecosystem" is defined as a "total environment to support mass operation of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs)". This encompasses "hard infrastructure" such as recharging technologies, smart grids, and transport systems along with "soft infrastructure" such as regulation, business models, skills and community engagement. Blending this complex mix of technologies and services into the fabric of cities requires alignment between governments, municipal authorities, and other key stakeholders from the automotive manufacturing sector, energy companies, and technology suppliers. Task 18 is shaping a global vision on the technologies, policies, markets and business models that will create EV cities of the future. A group of 10 to 20 cities, regions, and nations will be presented as international forerunners and engage in the following: (1) Foresight workshops assembling experts from municipalities, regional authorities, governments, and industry, who together will establish priorities for EV programmes while exploring opportunities in business models, social change, and smart grids; (2) An International Roadmap to establish a blueprint for provision of infrastructure for EVs based on the city roadmaps with lessons learned, key findings, and best practices; (3) A global community of pioneering cities connecting international experts in an interactive web portal with a series of EV Congress meetings to facilitate policy exchange and problem solving.


Task 19. Life Cycle Assessment of Electric Vehicles
This Task will focus on the life cycle assessment (LCA) of electric vehicles (EVs). The objective is to learn how electric drivetrain vehicles should be designed for optimal recyclability and minimal resource consumption. It also aims to promote the best available technologies and practices for managing the materials in EVs at the end of their useful life, when the vehicle is dismantled.


Task 20. Quick Charging Technology
This Task addresses quick charging technology for plug-in electric vehicles, with the following goals: Report on the current status of quick charging technology. Discuss objectively how quick charging technology can contribute to the deployment of electric vehicles. Share knowledge on quick charging technology deployment developments and trends. Get consensus and provide joint conclusions to the stakeholders related to the standardisation process. Provide recommendations for setting up a roadmap for quick charging technology development and implementation.


Task 21. Accelerated Ageing Testing for Li-ion Batteries
This Task plans to conduct an inventory of worldwide efforts used in the development and application of accelerated testing procedures for analysing the ageing of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries in various vehicle applicaitons. Accelerated ageing testing is necessary for Li-ion batteries because EVs have not yet been on the road long enough for the batteries’ performance and durability to be tested in real-world conditions over several years. The Task will also identify the expertise available in various laboratories in order to verify the compatibility of the different approaches. Finally, the Task aims to offer share the data with the organisations responsible for the development of standard testing procedures that are harmonised between countries. Task 21 will run for 5 years from its commencement in the second half of 2012.


Task 14. Market Deployment for Electric Vehicles: Lessons Learned
Task 14 collected experiences with plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) demonstration and market introduction programs to identify lessons learned from these pioneering efforts. The objective was to develop practical advice for utilities, local governments, original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) of PEVs, small firms, regulators, and other parties involved in future deployments. The final report for this Task is due in 2012.


Task 22. E-Mobility Business Models
Now that the electric vehicle market is moving beyond the demonstration projects into the mainstream, policy makers face the challenge of creating supportive environments to promote electric vehicle (EV) investment and enterprise as they enter the mass market. Task 22 will advance understanding of the opportunities to generate revenue and limit costs in the provision of electric vehicles, recharging infrastructure, and the associated links to energy systems. Task 22 members will invite multi-sectoral experts from the world over to write articles and provide expert analysis and commentary, lessons learned, case studies, and concepts for publication. Topics may include policy perspectives, vehicle provision, infrastructure systems, and energy systems. Task participants will set-up a global editorial board, recruit experts to submit text, and publish the findings in a widely-distributed report. The Task launched in 2012 and will run through 2014.