The IEA enables innovation through a wide range of international Energy Technology Initiatives, or ETIs1. Through the ETIs, more than 6,000 experts from over 50 countries work together to accelerate advances in energy technologies.
Hydropower represents 17% of total electricity generation worldwide, compared to less than 2% for all other renewable sources combined. Hydropower is a proven technology, and it is reliable and efficient, with low operating and maintenance costs. Pumped storage can help electricity networks balance the variability of integrating other renewable energy sources. There is considerable potential for hydropower, especially in Africa, Asia and Latin America. However, many environmental impact issues must be addressed such as methane emissions from hydropower reservoirs. Due to the high capital investments required for new hydropower projects, policies and measures aimed at providing financial incentives, innovative financing schemes, and market design reforms will alleviate risks for investors and accelerate deployment.
The objectives of the Implementing Agreement for a Co-operative Programme on Hydropower Technologies and Programmes (Hydropower IA) are to encourage awareness, knowledge and support for the sustainable use of water resources for the development and management of hydropower. This includes applying an interdisciplinary approach to hydropower research; increasing knowledge of a broad range of issues relating to hydropower; exploring areas of common interest among international organisations; disseminating balanced, unbiased information on hydropower; and encouraging hydropower deployment. There are eight Contracting Parties, including Brazil and China.
Due to uncertainties and diverging positions regarding GHG emissions from hydropower reservoirs, there is a lack of unbiased information feeding into energy policies, legislations and regulations. Under the project, Hydropower and the Environment: Managing the Carbon Balance in Freshwater Reservoirs, Hydropower IA members carried out a comprehensive study of the processes connected to reservoir GHG emissions. The goal was to establish best practice guidelines for planning studies on the carbon balance in reservoirs and to standardise GHG evaluation methods. The results of this study are synthesised in the Guidelines for Quantitative Analysis of Net GHG Emissions from Reservoirs. The Guidelines provide a methodology for performing quantitative analysis of net GHG emissions from man-made reservoirs, including advice and recommended procedures for performing in-situ measurements, data analysis and modelling.
The model comprises five stages of measurements: inundation area; reservoir; upstream watershed; reservoir outflow facilities; and downstream reach. General procedures for calculating estimates of net GHG emissions at each stage are outlined, including evaluations of uncertainties.
Advice on planning and executing measurement campaigns and calculating estimates of post-impoundment emissions (uncertainties for existing reservoirs) and pre-impoundment emissions (for both existing and planned reservoirs).
The Guidelines will be useful for hydropower plant operators, local or national GHG trading schemes, environmental impact assessments, and national GHG accounting.
* Photo courtesy of Eawag, Switzerland.
For more information: www.ieahydro.org
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