The IEA supports international energy technology research, development, deployment, and knowledge transfer through multilateral groups (formally called Implementing Agreements). The experts participating in the activities of the Implementing Agreements represent public and private sector entities worldwide. Together, these experts share knowledge – and resources – to advance energy technologies.
Coal-fired power plants and heavy industries such as cement and iron/steel are responsible for the majority of greenhouse gas and particulate emissions worldwide. Combining these processes with carbon capture and storage (CCS) can significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Despite the advantages, successful implementation of CCS is dependent on geographical, environmental, legal and cost considerations. Successful deployment of CCS is critically dependent on comprehensive policy support. A policy approach focussing on funding, costs and risks, subsidies/penalties, and technology support will move CCS from the pilot stage to widespread deployment.
The aim of the Implementing Agreement for a Co-operative Programme on Technologies Relating to Greenhouse Gases Derived from Fossil Fuel Use (GHG IA) is to assess the technical viability and technology progress that can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions derived from fossil-fuel use. Activities include unbiased technology assessments for GHG mitigation, in particular CCS; facilitating implementation of potential mitigation options through demonstration projects; facilitating international collaboration through expert networks and summer schools; and disseminating results. There are currently 21 Contracting Parties (including India, South Africa and two intergovernmental organisations) and 26 Sponsors.
Since 2005, the question of whether CCS should be approved as a clean development mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol led by the United Nations Framework for a Climate Change Convention (UNFCCC) had been debated and negotiated.
The GHG IA has worked actively to provide unbiased, expert information to inform the ongoing discussions. Three GHG IA analytical reports relating to CCS for CDM have been published. GHG IA experts contributed to the UNFCCC experts’ report, Implications of the Inclusion of Geological Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage as CDM Project Activities. In addition, experts from three GHG IA expert networks (Modelling; Montitoring; and Risk Assessment) discussed the CDM-related issues and made balanced recommendations. These recommendations were shared at a dedicated CCS technical and legal meeting leading up to COP 17 in Durban, South Africa.
In addition, the GHG IA held a side-event during COP 17 to inform negotiators and offer an opportunity for valid concerns to be raised. GHG assessments and analysis led to a greater understanding of CCS potentials and a higher level of technical discussion during the negotiations.
After 32 hours of intense negotiations, on 9 December 2011, the parties agreed and adopted the modalities and procudures to allow CCS projects under the CDM1, ending a six-year impasse. The information provided by the GHG IA contributed to this final agreement.
* Photo courtesy of Leila Mead, Earth Negotiations Bulletin, International Institute for Sustainable Development.
For more information: www.ieaghg.org
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