The IEA enables innovation through a wide range of international Energy Technology Initiatives, or ETIs1. Through the ETIs, more than 6,000 experts from over 50 countries work together to accelerate advances in energy technologies.
Nearly three-quarters of atmospheric CO2 emissions in the transport sector result from fuels used for transport, accounting for one-fourth of carbon emissions worldwide. Given the worldwide projected demand, combustion engines will continue to play an important role for years to come. Therefore it is imperative that governments continue to support R&D to improve engine efficiencies. Accelerated, concerted efforts between the public and private sectors will also be needed.
The aims of the Implementing Agreement for a Programme of Research, Development and Demonstration on Energy Conservation and Emissions Reduction in Combustion (ERC IA) are to carry out research projects related to advanced piston technology; furnaces and combustors; and fundamental research. Each project is carried out in parallel by the members in their national research laboratories or university science or engineering departments. In addition, each project benefits from close collaboration with industry to ensure market relevance. There are 12 Contracting Parties.
Despite diesel particulate filters (DPF), vehicles burning diesel create particulate emissions such as airborne black carbon. Black carbon can affect air quality and open-air water sources, resulting in health issues. Measuring these low levels of black carbon on the road and in real time requires sensitive new diagnostic tools.
Until now, most tests of these particulate emissions were carried out in laboratories but not in on-road conditions. The ERC IA member from Canada, in consultation with the ERC IA ExCo and with two industries1, has developed and commercialised an instrument that enables extremely precise measurements in on-road, real-time conditions.
The laser-induced incandescence instrument (LII) is an optical technique that measures the system efficiency of emissions control by sampling and reporting levels of black carbon concentration (parts per billion and milligrams per cubic metre), surface area, and particulate diameter from either the direct exhaust or from a dilution tunnel facility. It can be applied to evaluate the system efficiency of emissions control of solid particulate matter. As a result, the LII enables the further development of diesel engines that are emissions compliant, with efficient and effective black-carbon management and strategies for diesel particulate filters, effective engine calibrations for reducing levels of particulate matter at different engine conditions and emissions compliant engine products.
The optical system includes a computer-controlled automated laser beam, energy detection and adjustment system that maintains constant laser fluence2 in a wide range of environmental conditions. Other applications include emissions from petrol/gasoline, aircraft engines, gas turbines, and urban air quality atmospheric measurements of black carbon.
1. A consortium between Natural Research Council (NRC) of Canada, Artium Technologies and Cummins. NRC holds the patent for the device.
2. The amount of laser energy delivered with each pulse.
* Photo coutesy of Artium Technologies, Inc.
For more information: www.ieacombustion.com
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